From The Unz Review, a startling revelation about the consequences of affirmative action in education:
Black teachers have the highest probability of becoming principals throughout the teacher lifecycle. Hispanic teachers have the lowest probabilities and the probabilities for white teachers are situated between the two minority groups. The racial differences in the hazard functions are statistically significant.
The inclusion of teacher characteristics, school characteristics, and year fixed effects increases the odds ratio from 2.18 to 6.36.
People generally do not understand that Affirmative Action creates a market force through risk and cost. If a black person walks through that door and is not hired, there is a not insignificant chance of a lawsuit, and most of those are settled to avoid bad headlines.
For this reason, if a white person and a black person vie for the same job, it is much safer to give it to the black person, even if there is a competence differential.
This is not an argument that all black candidates are incompetent, but a frank statement of fact: an incompetent black candidate has the same chances of winning a lawsuit or getting a huge settlement as a competent one, so the black candidate is usually chosen.
No one gets fired for hiring a black candidate.
This means that affirmative action is forcing the hiring of incompetents, and as a result, is decreasing the value of what they administrate, in addition to creating the classic culture of incompetents: demanding leadership surrounded by yes-people.
Now consider how much this expands outside of education. The same pressures exist for every business, thanks to government laws and regulations which expose them to liability.
As America struggles to regain a healthy economy, one of the major factors thwarting it is such rules, which cause bloat and incompetence, dragging down industries and raising costs across the board.