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The Great War of Continents (Aleksandr Dugin)

Friday, August 30th, 2002

This text was originally published as Part III of “Konspirologya” (The Analysis of Conspirations), Arktogeya, Moscow 1992.

Part I – Before 1945

Geopolitics and the secret forces of history
The patterns of “conspiracy” are extremely miscellaneous. In this sphere the greatest popularity indoubtedly goes to the concept of the “Judaic-Masonic” conspiracy, so spread today in the most different circles. On principle, this theory deserves the most severe study, and we must recognize that we have no complete and serious scientific analysis of this theme, despite hundreds and thousand works either “exposing” this conspiracy, or “substantiating” its non-existence. But in the present work we shall examine a completely differente conspirologic pattern, based on a system of coordinates distinct from the “Judaic-Masonic” version. We shall try to describe in general the planetary “conspiracy” of two opposite “occult” forces, whose secret opposition and the invisible fight predetermined the logics of world history. These forces, in our opinion, are mostly characterized neither by national specificity nor by their belonging to a secret organization of Masonic or para-Masonic kind, but because of a radical divergence in their geopolitical orientation. As to the explanation of the final “secret” of these opposing forces, we are inclined to see it in the difference between two alternative and mutually excluding geopolitical projects, which stand aside of national, political, ideological and religious differences, and unite people of the most contradictory opinions and beliefs into one single group. Our conspirologic pattern is the pattern of “geopolitical conspiracy”.

The bases of geopolitics

Let’s remind the basic postulates of geopolitics – a science which was earlier called also as “political geography” and whose basic elaboration is due to to the English scholar and political expert Halford Mackinder (1861-1947). The term “geopolitics” was for the first time introduced by the Swedish Rudolf Kjellen (1864-1922) and then brought into use in Germany by Karl Haushofer (1869-1946). Anyway the father of geopolitics remains Mackinder, whose fundamental pattern stood at the bases of all subsequent geopolitical studies. A merit of Mackinder is that he managed to outline and to comprehend the definite objective laws of political, geographical and economic history of mankind. If the term “geopolitics” appeared rather recently, the realiy designated by this term has a pluri-millennial history. The substance of the geopolitical doctrine can be summarized in the following principles.  In  the world history there are two opposite and constantly competing approaches to the assimilation of land and room – the “overland” approach and the “maritime” approach. Depending on what attitude (“overland” or “maritime”) the diverse states, peoples, nations, their historical consciousness adhere to, their foreign and domestic policy, their psychology, their world-view are shaped according to completely definite rules. Given such feature, it is quite possible to speak about an “overland”, “continental” or even “steppe” (“steppe” is “land” in its pure, ideal kind) world-view and about a “maritime”, “insular”, “oceanic” or “aquatic” world-view. (We shall notice incidentally that the first hints of a similar approach can be found in the works of the Russian slavophiles – as Khomyakov and Kiryevsky). In the ancient history the “maritime” powers who became the historical symbol of the “maritime civilization” as a whole were Phoenicia and Carthago. The overland empire opposing Carthago was Rome. The Punic war is the purest image of the opposition of “maritime civilization” and “overland civilizations”. In the Modern Age and in the recent history the “insular” and “maritime” pole became England, “Mistress of the seas”, and later the giant island-continent America. England, as well as the ancient Phoenicia, mostly employed sea trade and the colonization of the coastal areas as its basic instrument for domination . The Poenician-Anglo-Saxon geopolitical type generated a special “mercantile-capitalist-market” pattern of civilization founded first of all on economic and material interests and the principles of economic liberalism. Therefore, despite all possible historical variations, the most general kind of  “maritime” civilization is always linked to the “primacy of economics above politics”. As against the Phoenician pattern, Rome represented a sample of warlike-authoritarian structure based on administrative control and civil religiosity, on the primacy of “politics above economics”. Rome is the example of a non-maritime,  overland, purely continental type of colonization, with its deep penetration into the continent and assimilation of the submitted peoples, automatically “romanized” after the conquest. In Modern History incarnations of the “overland” power were the Russian Empire and also Central European imperial Austro-Hungary and Germany. “Russia – Germany – Austro-Hungary” are the essential symbolls of “geopolitical land” during Modern History. Mackinder clearly showed that in the last few centuries the “maritime attitude” means “atlantism”, as today the “sea powers” above all are England and America, that is the Anglo-Saxon countries. Against “atlantism” personifying the primacy of individualism, “economic liberalism” and “democracy of a Protestant kind”, stands “eurasism”, necessarily presupposing authoritarianism, hyerarchy and the establishment of “communitarian”, national-state principles over the simply human, individualistic and economic concerns. The clearly expressed eurasian attitude is typical first of all of Russia and Germany, the two mightiest continental powers, whose geopolitical, economic and – most important – wordl-view concerns are completely opposite to those of England – US, that is the “atlantists”.

“Conspiracy of the atlantists”

Mackinder, as an englishman and “atlantist”, acknowledged the danger of an Aurasian consolidation and, since the end of 19th century, urged the government of England to do everything possible to prevent an Eurasian alliance, and especially an alliance between Russia – Germany – Japan (he considered Japan as a power of essentially continental and eurasian worldview). In Mackinder one can find the clearly formulated and minutely described ideology of accomplished and absolutized “atlantism”, whose doctrine stands at the base of anglo-saxon geopolitical strategy in the 20th century. Proceeding from this, we can define the essence of intelligence work, military espionage, political lobbysm, oriented towards England and USA, as the “Atlantic ideology”, the ideology of “New Carthago”- the one that is common to all “influential agents”, to all secret and occultist organizations, to all lodges and semi-closed clubs which served and serve the anglo-saxon idea in the 20th century, penetrating the network of all continental “eurasian”powers. And naturally, in the first place this immediately concerns english and american reconnaissance services  (especially the CIA), which are not simply the “sentinels of capitalism” or “americanism”, but the sentinels of “atlantism”, united by a deep-rooted and pluri-millennial super-ideology of the “oceanic” kind. It is possible to call the aggregate of all “networks” of anglo-saxon influence as the “participants of the atlantic conspiracy”, working not only in the interests of each separate country, but in the interest of a special geopolitical and, in the end, metaphysical doctrine representing an extremely multi-planed, miscellaneous and wide, but nevertheless essentially uniform worldview. So, generalizing the ideas of Mackinder, it is possible to say that there is an historical “conspiracy of the atlantists”, pursuing through the centuries the same geopolitical purposes oriented to the interest of the “maritime civilization” of neo-phoenician kind. And it is important to stress that “atlantists” can be both “left-”, and “right-wing”, both “atheists”, and “believers”, both “patriots”, and “cosmopolitans”, as the common geopolitical worldview stands behind all particular national and political differencies. Therefore we deal with the most real “occult conspiracy”, whose meaning and metaphysical intrinsic cause often remain completely obscure to its immediate participants, and even to its most key figures.

Conspiracy of the “eurasists”

Mackinder’s ideas, revealing that definite historical and political regularity which many before had guessed or foreseen, opened the way to the explicit ideological formulation of the opposition to atlantism in the pure “eurasian doctrine”. The first principles of the eurasian geopolitics were formulated by russian white emigrants known under the name of “eurasists” (prince N.Trubetskoy, Savitsky, Florovsky etc.) and the famous german geopolitician Karl Haushofer. Moreover, the fact of the frequent meetings of russian “eurasists” with Karl Haushofer in Prague cause us to esteem that german and russian geopoliticians developed the related topics simultaneously and in a parallel way. Moreover, in the subsequent analysis they followed just the same principles, insisting on the necessity of the eurasian geopolitical alliance of Russia-Germany-Japan as a counterweight to “atlantist” policies aiming at any cost to opposing Russia to Germany and Japan. Russian eurasists and the Haushofer group formulated the definite principles of a continental, eurasian worldview alternative to atlantist ideas. It is possible to say that for the first time they expressed what stood behind the whole european political history of the last millenium, having traced the path of the “Roman imperial idea”, which from Ancient Rome through Byzantium had passed to Russia, and through the Medieval Sacred Empire of the German nations to Austro-Hungary and Germany. Thus russian eurasists attentively and deeply analyzed the imperial and to the maximum extent “overland” mission of Gengis Khan and the Mongols, having stressed the continental significance of the Turks. The group of Haushofer, for his part, studied Japan and the continental mission of the Far Eastern states in the perspective of the future geopolitical alliance. So, in reply to Mackinder’s frank confession, enlighting the secret planetary “atlantist” strategy, laying its roots deep into the centuries, russian and german eurasists in the ‘20s discovered the logics of the alternative continental strategy, the secret overland “imperial idea”, heir of Rome, which invisibly inspired power [derzhava] policies with an authoritarian-idealistic, communitarian-heroic worldview – from the empire of Charles the Great to the Sacred Union proposed by the great russian czar Alexander the First, deep eurasian mystic invisibly. The Eurasian idea is as global as the Atlantic one, and it too had set its “secret agents” in all historical states and nations. All those who restlessly worked for the eurasian union, those who hindered for centuries the propagation on the continent of individualist, egualitarian and liberal-democratic concepts (reproducing as a whole the typical phoenician spirit of the “primacy of economics above politics”), those who aspired to unite the great eurasian peoples in the atmosphere of East, instead of in an atmosphere of West – be it the East of Gengis Khan, the East of Russia or East of Germany – all of them were “Eurasian agents”, bearers of the special geopolitical doctrine, “the soldiers of the continent”, “the soldiers of Land”. The Eurasian secret society, the Order of the eurasists, does not start at all with the authors of the manifest “Exodus to the East” or with Haushofer’s “Geopolitical Journal”. This was, briefly speaking, only the revelation, the outcoming of a definite knowledge which existed since the beginning of time, together with its relative secret societies and network of “influential agents”. No less than in the case of Mackinder, its belonging to the aenygmatic “secret societies” is historically established.

Order of Eurasia against Order of Atlantic (Atlantides).
Eternal Rome against Eternal Carthago.
Occult punic war invisibly continuing during millennia.
Planetary conspiracy of Land against the Sea, Earth against Water, Authoritarianism and Idea against Democracy and Matter.

Does not the endless paradoxes, contradictions, omissions and vagaries of our history become more clear, more logical and more reasonabe, if we to look at them from the perspective of an occult geopolitical dualism? Will not in this case the countless victims, by which mankind in our century pays the bill for unclear political projects, receive a deep metaphysical justifying? Is it not a noble and grateful gesture to recognize all those who fell on the battlefields of the XXth century as the soldier-heroes of the Great War of Continents, instead of compliant puppets of conventional and constantly varying political regimes, transient and unstable, passing and casual, meaningless to such extent, that death for the sake of them looks trivial and silly? Different deal, if the fallen heroes served to Great Land or Great Ocean, if aside from political demagogy and raging propaganda of ephemeral ideologies they served the great geopolitical purpose before the pluri-millennial planetary history.

“Blood and Soil” – “Blood or Soil?”

The famous russian philosopher, religious thinker and publicist Konstantin Leontyev pronounced this extremely relevant formula: “Slavness [Slavyanstvo] does exist, slavism does not”. One of the basic geopolitical conclusions of this remarkable author was the opposition betwen the idea of “panslavism” and “Asian” [asyatskoy] idea. If we attentively analyze this opposition, we shall detect a general typological criterion, which will allow us to better understand structure and logics of the geopolitical occult war of the Eurasian Order against the Atlantic Order. Contrary to to the eclectic combination of terms in the concept of “Blood and Soil” by the german ideologist of national-socialist peasantry Wahlter Darré, at the level of geopolitical forces occult war in the modern world this problem is differently formulated – namely, “blood or soil”. In other words, traditionalist projects of preserving of identity of the people, state or the nations always stand before an alternative – which one to take as the dominant criterion, whether “unity of nation, race, ethnos, unity of blood” or “unity of geographical space, unity of borders, unity of soil”. Thus the whole drama consists in the necessity of the choice: “either – or”, and each hypothetical “also” remains only an utopian slogan which is not decisive, but only obscuring the fineness of the problem. Ingenious Konstantin Leontyev, convicted traditionalist and radical russophile, adressed precisely this question: «Russians must either insist on the unity of the slavs, on slavism (“blood”), or turn to the East and realize the geographical and cultural affinity Russian to eastern to the peoples linked to Russian territories (“soil”)». This question can be formulated in different terms as a choice between confession of the supremance of law of “race” (“nationalism”) or “geopolitics” (“statehood”, “culture”). Leontyev himself chose “soil”, “territory”, the specificity of great-russian imperial religious and state culture. He chose “orientalism”   [vostochnost’], “asiatism” [azyatsnost’], “byzantism”. Such choice implied the priority of continental, eurasian values above narrow-national and racial values. Leontyev’s logics quite obviously resulted in the inevitability of the Russian-German, and especially Russo-Austrian union, and in the peace with Turkey and Japan. Leontyev’s categorical denial of “slavism” or “pan-slavism” roused indignation among many late slavopohiles, standing on the position of “blood is higher than soil”, or “blood and soil”. Leontyev was neither understood neither listened to. The history of the XXth century repeatedly demonstrated the extraordinary relevance of the problems he laid.

Panslavism against eurasism

The thesis “blood is higher than soil (in Russian context, it means “slavism”, “panslavism”) for the first time revealed all its ambiguity during the First World War, when Russia, having entered into alliance with the countries of the the Entente (the English, French and Americans), aiming to free the “Slav brothers” from the Turkish domination,  not only began to fight against its natural geopolitical allies – Germany and Austria, – but also  plunged itself into the catastrophe of revolution and civil war. As a matter of fact,  Russian “slavism”  worked on the side of “atlantists”, of the Entente and of a type of “neo-carthaginian civilization”, embodied in the mercantile-colonial, individualistic Anglo-Saxon model. It is not surprising, that among “patriot-panslavists” from the circle of the sovereign–emperor Nikolay II, the majority were employees of the english intelligence or simply “atlantist influential agents”. It is curious to recollect an episode from the novel of the russian patriot and ataman [head of Cossack militias] Petr Krasnov From the bicephal eagle to the red flag, where in the fire of the First World war someone asks the main hero, colonel Sablin, is aask: “Say frankly, colonel, whom do you consider as our true enemy?”, and he univocally answers: “England!”, though this conviction does not prevent him to honestly and courageously fight for english interests against Germany, following his duty of absolute loyalty to the eurasian Emperor. The hero of Krasnov’s novel is the ideal example of Russian patriot-eurasist, example the logics of “soil over blood”, which was characteristic for count Witte, for baron Ungern-Sternberg, for the mysterious organization “Baltikum”, consisting of Baltic aristocrats, till last minute remaining devoted to the imperial family (just like faithful to the czar in the chaos of universal betraying remained the turkmeni prince with his division, described in the same novel by Krasnov). It is striking, to what extent courageously and nobly acted during 1917 Asians, Turks, Germans and others “from other motherlands” [inorodtsi], serving by belief and truth the Czar and the Empire, serving Eurasia, “soil”, “continent” – in contrast to with many “slavs”, “pan-slavists”, quickly forgetting about “Constantinople” and the “Balkan brothers” and running away from Russia, leaving Czar and Fatherland, to the countries of “Atlantic” influence, to Western Ocean, to Water, betraying not only the Native land, but the great Idea of Eternal Rome, Russian Third Rome, Moscow.

The atlantists and racism

In Germany the affirmation of the idea “blood is higher than soil” produced not less terrible consequences. Contrary to the russophile and eurasist German patriots – Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, Karl Haushofer etc.- insisting on the “supremacy of law of vital room” [1] in the interest of the continent as a whole, on the idea of the “continental block”, in the government of the Third Reich eventually victory went to the “atlantist” lobby, maintaining racist theses and – under pretext of the “anglo-aryans and related german ethnoses” – aiming to divert Hitler’s attention to the East and to suspend (or at least to weaken) war actions against England. “Pangermanism” in this case (as well as russian “panslavism” in the First World War) only worked on the side of the “atlantists”. And it is completely logical that a major enemy of Russia, constantly aspiring to engage Hitler’s Germany in conflict against Russia, against the slavs (on “racial” reasons, “blood is higher than soil”), was the english spy and betrayer of the Reich, admiral Canaris. The problem “blood or soil” is extremely relevant also because the choice of one of these two terms to the detriment of the other allows to identify – maybe indirectly and mediately – the “influential agents” of this or that geopolitical worldview, specially when dealing with the “right” wing or “nationalists”. The essential feature of the “geopolitical conspiracy” of the atlantists (as, however, also of the eurasists) is that it covers the whole spectrum of political ideologies from the extreme right to the extreme left, but anyway the “geopolitical agents of influence” always leave their particular tracks. In the case of the “right”, such sign of potential atlantism is the principle of “blood over soil”, which, besides everything else, allows to abstract from the fundamentality of geopolitical problems, withdrawing the attention of leaders and statesmen to less relevant issues.

Who is the spy of whom?

As an example of the effect of occult geopolitical ideology of the “left”, it is possible to mention the eurasist national-bolsheviks from Germany – for instance, the German communist-nationalist Ernst Niekisch, the conservative revolutionary Ernst Junger, the communists Lauffenberg, Petel, Schultzen-Boysen, Winnig etc. Eurasist national-bolsheviks undoubtedly were also among the Russians, and the circumstance is curious, that Lenin itself during the emigration aspired to be pulled together to German politics and financiers; moreover, many of his theses were rather frankly germanophile. We do not want in this case to affirm that Lenin was involved in the Eurasian Order, but in some measure he was under the influence of this Order. Anyway, the opposition “Lenin=German spy” – “Trotsky=American spy” really corresponded to a definite typological scheme. In any case, at the pure geopolitical level, the operating of Lenin’s government had an Eurasian character, if only because, contrary to the authentic Marxist doctrine, he preserved the united great eurasian space of the Russian Empire. (Trotsky, on his part, insisted on exporting Revolution, on its “mondialization”, and considered the Soviet Union as something transient and ephemeral, as the bridgehead for ideological expansion, something which should disappear before the planetary victory of “messianic communism”; as a whole, Trotsky’s mission bore on itself the mark of “atlantism”, as opposed to communist “eurasist” Lenin). Leninist-bolshevik “internationalism” itself had a definite “imperial”, “eurasian” measurement-principle of “soil above blood” – though, certainly, this principle was distorted and misinterpreted due to the influence of other aspects of the bolshevik ideology and, most important, due to the activities of “influential agents” of atlantism inside the same communist government. Summing up all these reasons, it is possible to say that a distinctive feature of the representatives of the Eurasian Order in Russia was almost “compulsory” germanophily (or, at least, “anglophoby”), and conversely, in Germany eurasists were “compelled” to be russophile. Moeller van der Bruck made once a very correct remark: “French conservatives were always excited by the example of Germany, German conservatives by the example of Russia”. Here the whole logics is revealed of the geopolitical, continental backgound of the invisible occult fight passing through the centuries – the occult War of Continents.

You said GRU, mister Parvulesco?

Alone among western conspirolgists, to constantly stress the geopolitical character of the “world conspiracy” or, more exactly, two alternative “of world conspiracies” (“Euroasian” and “Atlantic”), is the ingenious French writer, poet and metaphysician Jean Parvulesco, author of many literary and philosophical works. In its long and extremely eventful life he was personally familiar with many prominent figures of the European and world history, including with the representatives of an “occult, parallel history” – mystics, outstanding masons, kabbalists, esoterists, secret agents of various special services, ideologists, politicians and artists. (In particular, he was friend of Ezra Pound, Julius Evola, Arno  Brekker, Otto Skorzely, Pierre de Villemarest, Raymond Abellio etc .) Having heard about the specificity of our conspirologic studies, Parvulesco has granted us some documents labeled as strictly-confidential, which have allowed us to discover many major details of the planetary geopolitical conspiracy. A special interest is exhibited by materials concerning the activity of secret occult organizations in Russia. In the further description we shall try to expose the most interesting aspects of Parvulesco’s conception. On February 24, 1989 in Lausanne, before the members of the administrative council of the mysterious “Institute for Special Metastrategical Studies ‘Atlantis’” Jean Parvulesco presented a report under the intriguing title The GRU Galaxy, with the subheading The confidential mission of Mikhail Gorbachev, the USSR and the future of the great Eurasian Continent. In this report – a copy of which Parvulesco transmitted to us – he analyzed the occult role of the Soviet military intelligence service otherwise called GRU (Glavnoe Razvedyvatelnoe Upravlenie, Main Intelligence Service), and the connection of the GRU with the secret Order of Eurasia. As a reference, Parvulesco chose the book of the well known specialist in the field of Soviet special service, the famous agent of the  French counter-intelligence and director of the “European Data Centre” Pierre de Villemarest, who in 1988 released in France the best seller “GRU, the most secret among the Soviet special services, 1918-1988”.

GRU against KGB

The conspirological model of the same Villemarest can be summarized as follows: “KGB is a continuation of the party, GRU is a continuation of the army. Already by its definition, the army defends the state, KGB defends the party… KGB is guided by the principle “patriotism at the service of communism”, while the army by the opposite principle “communism at the service of patriotism”. Proceeding from this logics of opposition between GRU and KGB as the most secret centres of bipolar power in the USSR (the army and the party), Villemarest builds the fascinating and argumented narration of the history of GRU. The secret sense of the invisible history of the USSR from the October revolution to the Perestroyka is to be found in the rivalry of “neighbours” – GRU, the “Aquarium” or the “military section 44388” at Khodynka, and KGB, the “office” at Lubyanka. But what is the connection between these rival special services and the two planetary geopolitical Orders, even more secret and hidden than most secret intelligence services? According to Parvulesco, the Eurasian Order was especially active in Russia in the beginning of the 20th century. Among its representatives he counts the St.Petersburg doctor Badmaev, baron von Ungern-Sternberg, the Swedish secret curators of Rasputin (signing their cyphrogramms by the pseudonym “Green”) and many other less known characters. It is necessary also to outline the special role of the future marshall Mikhail Tukhachevsky, who, according to Parvulesco, was initiated to the mysterious Polar Order during his stay in the German detention camp of Ingolstadt – where strikingly, just in the same period 1916-1918, we meet other major figures of modern history: general de Gaulle, general von Ludendorff and the future Pope Pio XII, monsignor Eugenio Pacelli. Just from this group of Russian geopolitical mystics, the testimony of the relay-race was later transmitted to the bolshevik regime, but basically to esoterists of continental attitude grouped in the army, in army structures, where there was a significant number of former imperial officers who had entered the ranks of the reds in order to change in the long run the bolsheviks’ nihilistic attitude of and to create the Great Continental Power using the communists, pragmatically possessed by the messianic idea. What matters is that among the red there were some agents of the Eurasian Order executing the secret continental mission. (It is curious, that the famous red robber Kotovskiy was a left-anarchist, occultist and mystic, and some specific parts of his biography justify the belief that in his case there have been contacts with the Eurasian Order). Thus, between pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary Russian “eurasists” there existed a continuity of members. The creation of the Red Army was bisiness of the agents of Eurasia; and in this respect it is curious to remind an historical event, that twenty seven days after the creation of the general headquarter of the Red Army on the Eastern Front (July 10, 1918) a crew of Chekists attacked it and liquidated all of its members, including the commander-in-chief. The cruel war between “red eurasists” from the Army and the “ red atlantists” from Djerdjinsky’s Cheka did not stop for one minute since the first days of the Soviet history. But despite the victims, the agents of the Eurasian Order among the reds did not leave their mission. A triumph of the eurasists was in 1918 the creation within the Red Army of the GRU (Major Intelligence Service) under the direction of Semyon Ivanovich Aralov, former imperial officer and until 1917 linked to the military intelligence. More precisely, Aralov was the head of the Operational Department of Vseroglavshtab [All-Russian Major Staff], where the reconnaissance service entered as one of its constituting parts. The peculiarity of his activity, that mysterious, almost mystical immunity, which this man enjoyed through all his life during the most careful “purges” (he died by natural death on May 22, 1969), and also some other details of his biography cause to see in Aralov the man of the Continental Order.

White eurasists – red eurasists

According to Parvulesco, the russian affiliate of the eurasist Order after the Revolution was established in the Red Army, and even more exactly, in its most secret department – the GRU. But this concerned, naturally, only the “Red” eurasists. The “White” eurasists in Europe generally joined the german nationalists, and we find representatives of this Order in the Abwehr [Counter-intelligence], and later in foreign sections of the SS and SD [Sicherheit Dienst] (specially SD, whose chief Heydrik was himself a convinced eurasist, for which reason he too fell victim of the intrigues of the atlantist Canaris). The revolution divided the Russians between “Reds” and “Whites”, but behind this political and conditioned division there was a different mysterious geopolitical partition into areas of influence of the two secret orders – Atlantic and Eurasian. In Red Russia the atlantists were grouped around the Cheka and around the Politburo, although never before the appointment of Kruschev any open “atlantist” held the seat of General Secretary (Lenin and Stalin were “eurasists” or, at least, subject to strong influence from the agents of the Eurasian Order). Among the white russian emigration the atlantists were not less than in Russia itself, and apart from obvious english spies – liberals such as Kerensky and other democrats and Social Democrats – even in the field of extreme rightists, monarchists, the atlantist lobby was extremely strong – to it belonged even such a “right” philosopher as Berdyaev, and many others. (The overwhelming majority of russian emigrants which appeared in the US were related to this geopolitical attitude.) In a definite moment, at the beginning of the ‘30s, the network of GRU agents in Europe and especially in Germany penetrates deeply into the structures of german and french intelligence, and the GRU network duplicates the network of NKVD and later KGB agents. GRU agents first of all penetrated into army structures and sometimes the common eurasian platform makes the people from GRU and other european secret agents not so much enemies, how much allies, collaborators, secretly (even to their own governments) preparing a new continental project. Here again we are not talking about double agents, as about the unity of the highest geopolitical interests. So in Germany the GRU holds contact with some Walter Nikolay, head of the “Bureau for the jewish question” . Thanks to him the GRU gains access to the highest direction of the Abwehr, SS and SD. The central figure of this network was Martin Bormann himself. (This fact was well known to the allies after fact-findings linked to the Nuremberg process, and many of them were sure that Bormann after 1945 was hidden just in the USSR. It is known for certain that Walter Nikolay himself really passed in May 1945 to the Russians).

The Ribbentropp-Molotov pact and the subsequent revenge of the atlantists

In relation to Martin Bormann, friend of Ribbentropp and Walter Nikolai,  Jean Parvulesco himself  tells one extremely revealing story, casting some light on the secrets of the occult war between the two geopolitical Orders. Arno Brekker, the famous German sculptor, who very well knew Bormann, told Parvulesco about one strange visit from him in Jackelsburg. «On June 22, 1941, immediately after the attack of Hitler’s Germany against the USSR, Bormann came to him without a warning, in a state of shock, having left his office at the Reichskanzlerei. He was constantly repeating the same mysterious sentence: “Non-being, in this June day, has gained victory above Being… All is over… All is lost..” When the sculptor asked what he meant, Bormann kept silent; then, already at the door, he turned as he wanted to add something, then decided not to, and left slamming the door».  That was the great collapse of long-term efforts for the eurasian agents. For the atlantists, the date of June 22, 1941 was a great celebration day: the intra-continental war of the two major eurasian powers, one against the other, was a pledge of triumph for the Atlantic Order, irrespective of what side victory would go to. June 22, 1941 for the Order of the eurasists was an even more tragic event than the October revolution. It is important to stress that the agents of the Eurasian Order used their best efforts to avert the conflict. Preparatives for the conclusion to the maximum extent of the symbolical pact “Ribbentropp-Molotov” (both, by the way, were out-and-out eurasists) were actively led from both sides during long years. In 1936 Stalin, definitively shifting at the threshold of the ‘30s on the side of the Order of Eurasia, had given Berzin, chief of the GRU (Berzin was the exception of a rule: agent of atlantism heading the eurasian organization and working inside it for the NKVD) this order: « Immediately suspend any activity against Germany ». (It must be noticed that Berzin ignored this order). In 1937 Heydrik and Himmler in a secret dispatch assured the Fuehrer, that «Germany is not more a target of Komintern activity, and also of other Soviet subversive activities». The pact Ribbentropp-Molotov was the summit of strategic success for the eurasists. But at the last moment the Oceanic forces overcame. The eurasists in GRU and, more generally, in the army – Voroshilov, Timoshenko, Zhukov, Golikov etc.- until the last moment refused to believe in the possibility of war, since the serious influence of the eurasian (that is, russophile) lobby in the Third Reich was perfectly known to them. (National-socialist anti-slavic propaganda they deemed so insignificant and superficial, as well as Marxist demagogic internationalist rethorics in the USSR). General Golikov (concealing his noble origins and his authentic date of birth, and also his true biography, on motives purely linked to conspiracy within the “Eurasian” order) even reproached his subordinates, having received the piece of information about the Germans crossing the Soviet border: “English provocation! Investigate! ” He did not know at that moment what Martin Boormann already knew: “Non-being has gained victory over Being”.

Contours of the Atlantic lobby

The secret Atlantic Order has a most ancient history. Some traditonalist authors trace it back to the initiatic societies of ancient Egypt and specially to a sect worshipping the god Seth, whose symbols were the Crocodile and Leviathan [2] (i.e. aquatic animals), and also the Red Ass (see J.Robin Secret societies in apocalyptical rendez-vous, J.M.Allemand René Guénon and Seven towers of the devil etc.). Later the sect of Seth merged with various phoenician cults, specially with the bloody cult of Moloch. According to the French conspirologist of the XIXth century Claude Grace d’Ors, this secret organization still existed many centuries after after the ruin of the phoenician civilization. In Middle Age Europe it existed under the name of “Minstrels of Morgana”, whose emblem was the “Dancing Death”, or Dance Macabre. Grace d’Ors affirmed that Luther’s Reformation was conducted under the instruction of this sect and that Protestants (especially Anglo-Saxon and French) still remain under its influence. Jan Parvulesco believes that Giuseppe Balsamo, the famous Cagliostro, was one of the major agents of this secret Order which emerged at the surface at the end of the XVIII century under the mask of the irregular “Egyptian” Masonry of Memphis rite, later of Memphis-Mithra. Such symbolical prehistory of the atlantists characterizes the substance of their geopolitical and cultural-economic strategy. Its sense is reduced to emphasizing “horizontal” values, to bring on the foreground the lowest aspects of the human being and society as a whole. This does not mean that atlantism is identical to vulgar materialism, but anyway, the “material”, purely economic, commercial aspect of human activity holds the central place in it. The notion of a system of values at a merely human level supposes individualism and radical anthropocentrism, peculiar to atlantism in all its manifestations, and in parallel to this notion there necessarily emerges the typical “Atlantic” scepticism and depressive irony in relation to ideal, supra-human measure of life. In fact, the images of the Red Ass and the Dancing Death perfectly mirror the substance of “Atlantic” scepticism. And according to the strange logics of history, the most radical forms of protestantism, individualistm, social and religious critical consciousness after Lutherian reform, as a matter of fact, were “attracted” as a magnet towards the Atlantic regions – to England and further Westward, even deeeper into the Atlantic – to America, where found a favourable ground the most extreme forms of radical protestantism incarnated by Baptists, Quakers and Mormons. (J.M. Allemand marked a symbolical concurrence: from Cadiz – a port which was historically the major centre of phoenician colonies on the Iberian peninsula – Cristopher Columbus sailed for his Atlantic expedition, concluded with the discovery of America). But the consolidation of the Atlantic Order in the Extreme West and the creation of an exclusively Atlantic civilization in the US, acoording to the project of this Order, were just an intermediate stage in the “neo-carthagenian”plans of the atlantists. The following strategic step consisted in exporting the Atlantic model on the other continents, in the geopolitical colonization of the whole planet, in the transfer of the West, in mystical and geopolitical sense, all over the world, including, of course, also the East. Therefore the network of Atlantic agents in the states of Eurasia not only pursued a defensive goal (weakening the alternative geopolitical force), but also supposed offensive operations. The avantgarde of “atlantism” in Eurasia were “leftists”, “anarchist” subversive movements, though also in their environment there always existed an internal eurasian opposition. However, is is necessary to recognize “economic socialism” and “communism” in their theoretical and pure kind as the “atlantic” form of propaganda, the socio-political mask for the secret Order of the Red Ass. If we take into account the specifical geopolitical and occult doctrines of the Atlantic pole, it becomes completely clear why “leftist” subversive movements were so much encouraged by the Anglo-Saxon powers in continental European and Eurasian countries, while in England, and especially in America, “communists” and “social-democrats” constitute an insignificant percentage. For the atlantist lobby, “leftists” have always been the fifth column in Eurasia. From here also comes that natural harmony between russian atlantists of communist inclination and anglo-saxon capitalists, which so often leads to a blind alley foreign scholars and historians, wondering about such complete mutual understanding between “class enemies” – between  “messianic” bolsheviks with their dictatorship of proletariat and Wall Street bankers with their cult of the Golden Veal. The secret society of the Dancing Death, Red Ass, “Minstrels of Morgana”, Brotherhood of the Ocean – these images will help us to understand the logics of the world atlantist lobby, aspiring not only to defend their “islands”, but also to turn the whole planet into “Carthago”, in the united universal “ human market”.

KGB at the service of the “Dancing Death”

Pierre de Villemarest rightly defined the Cheka (OGPU, NKVD, KGB) as the “continuation of the party”. It would be even more precise to say that it is the secret centre of the party, its mind and its soul. Jan Parvulesco has supplemented this definition by occult geopolitical measurement. According to Parvulesco, KGB is the centre of the most straight influence of the Atlantic Order, Order of the Dancing Death. KGB is a cover for this Order. Many had guesses about an occult background of this organization. Some even spoke about presence in KGB of a secret organization of parapsychological studies, about the so-called black-magic “Company of Viy”,[3] where all the leading political figures of the USSR received, so to speak, their consecration. However, hearings about the mysterious “Company of Viy”, most likely, are but the oversimplified and grotesque description of a much subtler and deeper reality, as the occult mission of KGB is not at all reduced to magic or parapsychological experiences, to which, we shall notice, this organization really always showed some abnormal, heightened interest. KGB was initially planned as the only ideological-punitive structure called to supervise above the subjects of the communist social and cultural space. The communists in their ideological, messianic, Marxist dimension, in relation to the eurasian population of the regions subject to them, always erected themselves as colonizers, as newcomers, always keeping an ideological distance from the needs, requirements and interests of the indigenous population. At the purely “ideal” level, they aimed at imposing to the eurasian peoples an economy-centered model unnatural for them – which compelled the former to use a repressive apparatus. The Cheka (NKVD, OGPU, KGB) was initially the parody of the “knightly-ideological” order called to punish the autochtones and to stifle their natural inclination for the “soil”. Cheka (and KGB) also professed the thesis of “blood over soil”, but already in its completely misunderstood, blood-sadist variant, as a disturbing memoir of the bloody phoenician cult of Moloch, to which the atlantist agents were typologically and generically linked. Cheka-KGB always served the “Dancing Death ”, and many paradoxes and unreliable (because of their inhumanity) histories linked to this dark organization become more clear, if we shall take into consideration the not only metaphorical, but occultist-esoterist connection of this Order to the most ancient middle eastern cults, whose adherents never ceased to exist actually, continuing the secret chain through secret european and middle eastern organizations of atlanist kind.

Convergence of intelligences and the “polar mission of GRU”

The CIA, as an instrument of the American atlantism, typologically belongs to same conspirological category. Moreover, at the origins of this organization we find outstanding figures of the american masonry – which, by the way, the european masons consider as irregular, that is heretical and sectarian. (However a question here follows from necessity: is there in the US as a whole anything, in the sphere of religion or metaphysics, that would not be heretical and sectarian?) The CIA, as KGB, was never indifferent to magic and parapsychology, and on the whole its role in modern civilization is quite comparable to KGB’s role, though the blood-sadist substance in this case is not so obvious. The CIA (and its forerunners) together with the english secret services, since the beginning of the century have filled Eurasia with a network of agents, which constantly influenced the course of historical events in atlantist key. Somehow, it is quite possible to speak about “convergences of special services”, about “merger” of KGB and CIA, about their lobbyist unity at a geopolitical level. This explains such an abundance of so-called “Soviet spies ” in the highest regions of american power, from Hiss to Reserford, who, according to some authors, transmitted the project of the hydrogen bomb to Soviet nuclearists. (It is possible, by the way, that just within the atlantist lobby of the Soviet-American nuclear scientists, the academician Sakharov acquainted himself with mondialist projects of the anti-eurasian orientation, upon which he later based his social and political and futurological views.) It is necessary to notice that the doubling of the KGB agents network in the US and other anglo-saxon countries by the GRU agents network was laid in constant secret conflict with “neighbour”agents of Lubyanka; and given the radical contradiction of geopolitical and even metaphysical orientation of these two Soviet secret structures, it would be logical to suspect that the true and only oppositor of the CIA were the GRU agents, and not at all KGB. These convergence of secret services, as well as the converging realignment of the Soviet communists of the highest echelon with American mondialists, are grounded on the unity of fundamental geopolitical orientation, on the unity of a secret structure, which makes use both of West atlantists and atlantist agents in the East, sometimes occupying the highest places in the state and political nomenclature. But the complete and open merger of these two affiliations of the Order of the Dancing Death from a certain moment was hindered by the efforts of the alternative eurasian lobby, genetically linked to GRU and to the Soviet General Staff, but also including in its network many european and asian intelligence structures (especially from Germany, France – linked to general de Gaulle’s secret geopolitical projects- Arab countries, and so on), united at the service of the alternative Order, the Order of Eurasia – otherwise called as the society of the “minstrels of Mursya” or as the polar “Order of Heliopolis”, Order of Apollon, solar winner of the Snake-Python, that Snake which the Greek tradition identified with the Egyptian god Seth, with the Red Ass.

Rise and eclypse of the Eurasian Sun

Let us now briefly outline the peripeties of the occult war of the Eurasian Order against the Atlantic Orders within the Soviet system. As we have said in the previous chapters, Lenin as a whole adhered to the Eurasian attitude. It is characteristic that during his leadership the GRU was created and directed by the sincere eurasist Semyon Ivanovich Aralov. Aralov himself permeated the structure of this secret army organization with eurosian continental principles, gathering around himself the most valuable and efficient “brothers of Eurasia”, who like him were sent among the red ranks for accomplishing their special metapolitical mission. It is curious that at the beginning of the ‘60s Aralov released a book under the expressive title “Lenin led us to victory ”. It is necessary to remark here one relevant detail: the so-called “leninist guards”, despite of political affinity to Lenin, at a geopolitical level belonged in the overwhelming majority to the alternative, Atlantic geopolitical orientation. “Lenin’s nearest collaborators”, and not at all “the ambitious tyrant Stalin” (as many still today wrongly consider), stood behind his demise from the government of the country. The end of the leninist leadership marked in itself the passage of power in the hands of the atlantists, and as a matter of fact, during the second half of the 1920s – first half of the 1930s we are witness of a significant improvement of the relations between the USSR and the Anglo-Saxon countries, and first of all the US. In a parallel way to this we see also symptomatic permutations of cadres within the GRU. The atlantist and chekist Berzin, creating an intelligence structure with the support of Komintern and communist zealots, i.e. of atlantist elements, is appointed to replace the eurasist Aralov. But even Berzin fails to change the orientation of GRU. The structures created by Aralov are strong and at the same time flexible enough to surrender without fight. Despite of all Cheka-NKVD attacks against the army, the military have significant authority and preserve their intellectual geopolitical elite in the ranks of GRU. One curious detail deserves notice – all the chiefs of GRU who replaced Aralov prior to the beginning the Great Patriotic War, were executed. We list them: O.A. Stigga, A.M. Nikonov, Ya.K. Berzin, I.S. Unschlikht, S.P. Uritskiy, N.I. Yezhov, I.I. Proskurov. All of them (except for general Proskurov) were not military cadres, all of them worked against the eurasian idea, but it did not prevent the GRU to remain the only eurasian organization secretly acting to the accomplishment of the great continental project. The dismissal of Berzin in 1934, after nine years’ stay as the head of GRU, meant a severe crisis in the occult war behind the scenes of the Soviet government. Hitlers’ coming to power had extraordinarily strenghtened the positions of the “continental lobby” within the Soviet government. In 1934 GRU agents begin to prepare the German-Russian strategic union reaching its summit with the Ribbentropp-Molotov pact. Stalin definitively reveals his support to the eurasian orientation, believing that the anti-atlantic tendencies of national-socialism will attract on themselves the attention of the anglo-saxon powers and that in such situation it will possible, at last, to open the way to the destruction of the powerful “atlantic” lobby within the USSR. The destruction of the “leninist guards” begins. All stalinian processes, sometimes apparently absurd and completely groundless, were actually deeply substantiated at a geopolitical level. All “right” and “left-wing” conspiracies were perfectly real – although to directly call them by name and to incriminate the whole “atlantist lobby ”, acting already for a long time in the Soviet government, Stalin did not resolve to. Probably, he had reasons to be afraid of a terrible and cruel reaction. Therefore he was compelled to mask his claims on this or that group of the high-ranking cadres through “relative” charges and allegorical labels. Layer after layer, Stalin liquidated the influential agents of “New Carthago”, but also the inverse reaction was unavoidable. An especially severe impact on the eurasian lobby was the killing of the head of the “Polar” lodge within the Red Army, marshall Tukhachevsky. Though also in this case the revenge of the atlantists on Tukhachevsky and all claims showed against him were deeply substantiated, this was only true in the specific “atlantist” perspective, in the context of anti-eurasian sabotage.

Notes

(1) It must be remarked that in Haushofer’s theory of “vital space”, “Lebensraum”, there was no allusion to any anti-slavic expansionism, while the two expressions became associated for Hitler and other ideologists of the Third Reich (See Karl Haushofer De la géopolitique Ed. Fayard, France, 1986). [Author’s note]

(2) “Behemoth” in the original text is clearly a misprint. [Ed. note]

(3) Imaginary figure from Gogol’s fiction; leader of demons, vampyres, witches. [Ed. note]

Part II – After 1945

After the “victory”

Hitler’s aggression against the USSR was the great eurasian catastrophe. After the terrible fratricidal war between two geopolitically, spiritually and metaphysically close, related peoples, between two anti-atlantist oriented regimes, Stalin’s Russia and Hitler’s Germany, USSR victory was actually equivalent to a strategic defeat – since all historical experience demonstrates that Germany can never be reconciled with a defeat, so that the winner already by its victory fastens the knot of a new forthcoming conflict, sowing seeds of forthcoming war. Besides, Yalta caused Stalin to solidarize with the Allies, that is with those powers which have always been the worst enemies of Eurasia. Stalin, perfectly understanding the laws of geopolitics and having already made his eurasist choice, could not fail to understand it. Immediately after the german defeat, Stalin began to realize a new geopolitical project, the Warsaw Agreement, integrating East European countries in the atmosphere of Great Soviet Russia. And here came the first conflicts and dissents with the atlantists. Until 1948 Stalin disguised his continental intents and even approved the creation of the state of Israel, that was the major strategic act of England (and more generally, of atlantism) in reinforcing its military, economic and ideological influence in the Near East. But already in 1948, using besides all other means the chain of command of internal political positions of the army (Zhukov, Vasilevskiy, Shtemenko etc.), Stalin returned to orthodox eurasist geopolitics, renewed the anti-atlantic purges within the Soviet government and pronounced the “condemn” of Israel as an anti-continental formation generated by “anglo-saxon spies”. Strangely enough, Stalin’s death coincided with the most dramatic and tense moment in the accomplishment of his eurasist plans, when the perspective was actual of a new continental union – USSR-China, that could radically change the logics of planetary alignment of forces and bring revenge to the Great Order of Eurasia. If we take into account these reasons and the geopolitical features of the post-stalinian course in the USSR, the version about the assassination of Stalin (advanced by many european historians) becomes more than probable. And the main role of  NKVD and its chief, the sinister Berya, worst enemy of GRU, General Staff and Eurasia, in the supposed assassination of Stalin is remarked by the majority of the historians. [It is necessary to warn that the Author’s views about Berya have substantially changed since this paper was written, along with new elements of historical interpretation brought to light by (mostly) russian historians.
So  in the review Elementy (n.9) appeared an article by A.Potapov (Eurasia and secret services) presenting a completely different view of Berya and his role.]

In 1953, eight years after the pseudo-victory, there was one only step before the real Victory (as well as in 1939). But instead of it the world saw the Fall of the Titan.

The “polar” mission of general Shtemenko

According to Jean Parvulesco, since the second half of the ‘40s a key figure of eurasian geopolitical lobby in the USSR was the general-colonel Sergey Matveevic Shtemenko (1907 – 1976). His high sponsors were marshall Zhukov and general Aleksandr Poskrebyshev (who, according to some sources, carried over at Stalin a mission similar to Martin Bormann’s at Hitler, that is was the vehicle of germanophile ideas). During the ‘60s Shtemenko was one of the key figures in the Soviet Army: in different periods he was commander of the armed forces of the Warsaw Agreement countries and chief of the General Staff of the USSR. But the most relevant of his appointments, according to the fundamental line of our conspirological study, was the position of head of the GRU in the years 1946-1948 and 1956-1957. With Shtemenko the GRU was completely restored in its “polar”, occult, order features introduced into the structure of GRU by its founder Aralov. Pierre de Villemarest called general-colonel Shtemenko the  first and most outstanding Soviet geopolitician. Shtemenko was a natural and univocal supporter of the Great Continental Project, in full correspondence with the  traditional logic of the eurasist Order. In his book Villemarest wrote about him: «Shtemenko belonged to that special caste of Soviet officers who, though being also “soviet”, were nevertheless representative of great-russian spirit and expansionist beliefs». And further: «For this caste the USSR is an empire called to guide [upravlyat] the eurasian continent, and not only from the Urals to Brest, but from the Urals to Mongolia, from Central Asia up to the Mediterranean». Strategic plans of Shtemenko included the peaceful economic-cultural penetration into Afghanistan (about which he spoke in the years 1948-1952) and the entry of Soviet troops in the arab capitals – Beyrut, Damascus, Cairo, Algeri. Already in 1948 Shtemenko insisted on the special geopolitical role of Afghanistan, which would allow the USSR to gain access to the ocean and boost the military power of the Soviet fleet in the Black and Mediterranean seas. It is important to notice that the famous admiral Gorshkov was a close friend of general-colonel Shtemenko. Shtemenko and the occult subdivision, revived by him, in GRU created under Stalin a powerful and advanced network of eurasist influence, which, despite of all Berya’s attempts to erase it, was not destroyed even after Stalin’s death – although from 1953 to the middle of the ‘60s the eurasist lobby within the army was compelled to hold a defensive position. As an unavoidable evil, GRU agents for 23 years (1963-1986) had to stand as the head of GRU the atlantic agent of Lubyanka, former “liquidator”, general Petr Ivashutin. It was an indispensable compromise. General-colonel Shtemenko, agent of the “Polar Order”, Order of Eurasia – that is key which will help us understand the secret logics of Soviet history from Khrushev to perestroyka. This history,- not differently, however, from all world history – is the both open and obscure fight of two secret orders, “Minstrels of Morgana” and “Minstrels of  Mursia”, devotees of the Egyptian Seth, the Red Ass, and devotees of the northern, polar Apollon, killer of the Snake Python.

Nikita Khrushev, agent of Atlantis

Khrushev was  the first protegé of the atlantist lobby to become the individual leader of the USSR. Despite his dissents with Berya, Khrushev leaned on KGB and at a definite time made the final , opposite to the choice of Lenin and Stalin. Khrushev’s activity was directed to destroying the internal structures of the eurasists in the USSR, and also to undermining the global continental project of a supra-statal planetary block. The coming of Khrushev was the coming to power of KGB. Khrushev, once he had consolidated his position, begins to strike blow after blow against  all levels of the continental-patriotic lobby. All his attention is henceforth centered on the anglo-saxon countries, especially on the US. Khrushev’s slogan “to catch up and bypass the West” means alignment to the atlantic powers and acknowledgement of their social and economic superiority. The theses about the rapid approach of communism are directed to riding again the “leftist-messianic”, “bolshevist-internationalist” tendencies almost forgotten during the long years of eurasian imperial geopolitical stalinism. Khrushev aims to strike a blow on all “soil” traditional structures, which had been saved, due to the secret protection of the Eurasian Order, even in the most terrible periods of red terror. Khrushev wants definitively to get rid of the Russian Orthodox church. Khrushev was “americanist” and “atlantist” in everything: starting from the famous atlantic “corn” and ending with his military concepts exclusively based on employing intercontinental missiles to the detriment of all remaining kinds of weapons. Khrushev did not care at all for the eurasian continent. He was concerned with Latin America, Cuba etc. Between the atlantists from Khrushev war cabinet (whose leader was marshal S.S. Biryuzov) and the eurasists from Shtemenko’s group there was almost open conflict. Khrushev insisted on the concept of “nuclear intercontinental blitzkrieg”, which, from the continental point of view, is nothing else than strategic sabotage, weakening the real military power of continental forces, shattering the economy and creating a planetary apocalyptical threat. After Khrushev’s dismissal, “Red Star” quite fairly wrote: «That strategy, which we eventually refused, could only be born in an ill brain». Shtemenko even earlier in the same “Red Star” warned: «It is nowise possible to base the safety of the USSR only on ballistic intercontinental missiles». With Khrushev begins the definitive separation of intra-statal functions: “men of the party” and representatives of  Lubyanka solidarize henceforth with khrushevists on the strategy of “nuclear blitzkrieg” (the Soviet Army becomes the first hostage of the “nuclear terrorists” of KPSS [Communist Party of the Soviet Union], more exact, of the atlantic wing of KPSS), while eurasists and GRU lobbyists insist on the development of conventional armaments and try to take a revenge through military space studies. In 1958 Khrushev dismisses from authority the powerful and extremely popular eurasian marshall Zhukov. In 1959 he starts another offensive – he places at the head of GRU one of the most odious figures of Soviet history, the bloody executioner, chekist Ivan Serov, known under the nickname of “zhivoder” [cut-throat. This bloody character – ideal type for the characteristic of Order of Red Ass as a whole – was abhored by the General Staff and, of course, by GRU agents and patriots of Eurasia in the first place. Another “atlantist”, general Mironov, becomes the accountable curator of the so-called “executive organs” – that means supervision above basic army and intelligence subdivisions. However the khrushevian offensive manoeuvres meet the well coordinated occult reaction of the eurasists: Konev, Sokolovskiy, Timoshenko, Grechko try to defeat Khrushev at any cost. Each superfluous day of stay in power of this “atlantist” renders an irreplaceable ideological, strategic and political damage to the USSR, and, as a whole, to the interests of the continental powers. Let’s notice another curious detail: in Khrushev’s epoch the domination of the “totalitarian-hegelian” line in Soviet “ritualistic” marxist philosophy (attributing primacy to the supra-individual, “objective” factors above the individual and subjective) is replaced by the domination of the “subjective-kantian” line (attributing primacy to the individualistic and “subjective” above the “objective”). Just in those times begins the quick degradation of civic education, appears the new constellation of  “khrushevist”  academicians and scientists representing a mob of unskilled and arrogant laymen. (We shall recollect, for instance, as a representantives of  “khrushevists” A.N. Yakovlev, who admitted to have criticized Marcuse, not having found time at all to read him; the Stalin scientists continuing, though in a peculiar form, the pre-revolutionary academic traditions, as a rule, were distinguished for their knowledge of those authors which they sincerely or not so sincerely criticized). With Khrushev begins the step-by-step propagation in the society of  an “atlantism”-oriented, groundless and cosmopolitan intelligentsia, which KGB brood unseen even in its most radical and dissident variants. The themes of the West, the themes of the US begin to spread in the USSR as “prohibited”, but “attractive” ideals from the end of the ‘50s – beginning of the ‘60s.

The long path to 1977

Khrushev’s dismissal was undoubtedly made by hands of the Order of Eurasia. It is indicative, that eight days after he left the place of General Secretary, the airplane on which were two key agents the “atlantic” lobby – marshall Biryuzov and general Mironov – suffered a crash. After Khrushev’s knockout the eurasists step-by-step began to recover their positions. Leonid Brezhnev was a figure supported by the eurasists. It is significant, that the writer Smirnov in 1965 wrote: “On May 9, 1965 at the parade for victory in Moscow before the veterans’ columns should pass, celebrating the twentieth anniversary of Victory, marshall Zhukov himself, decorated with battle orders”. After seven years of khrushevian disgrace Zhukov was again rehabilitated. It was the present victory of GRU. But the triumph of the Order of Eurasia under Brezhnev was far from being complete. “Atlantists” from KGB were not going to to surrender. The continental projects were constantly stopped. In the middle of the ‘60s even there was a paradoxical situation, when the perspective of the continental block was debated, bypassing the USSR. In this respect it is interesting to report the facts about negotiations of Arthur Axmann – former head of the “Hitler-jugend” organization and participant to the eurasian lobby inside the SS – with Zhou Enlai concerning the creation of a united continental block Pekin – Berlin – Paris, bypassing the USSR. Laval, and even general de Gaulle without reserve greeted such project. A further meeting was held in Bucharest. Arthur Axmann in Madrid told Jean Parvulesco about the following episode on his flight to Pekin. In the same plane sat a group of Soviet military, which tried to convince Axmann of the necessity of including also the USSR in this Eurasian project – which was, however, the old dream of Axmann himslef, oppositor of Hitler’s antislavic racism since the times of his implication in the eurasian lobby inside the SS (the SS circle of hauptmann Aleksandr Dolezhalek, Richard Hildebrandt, Guenther Kaufmann etc., linked, of course, with Walther Nikolay and Martin Bormann). GRU officers also reported to Axmann about the intrigues of the atlantist lobby in the USSR, putting insuperable obstacles to all geopolitical projects oriented to the continent – and so to all continental powers, most important of which being the USSR. The atlantists from KGB, using their traditional tactics, forced the Army to resign itself with Ivashutin (old chekist and extremely unpopular figure) at the head of GRU for 23 years. But nevertheless, since 1973 Brezhnev began to advance the military closer and closer to the government of the country. In 1973 marshall Grechko became member of the Politburo. Replacing him, also Ustinov entered this body, though we must notice that the chiefs of KGB – Andropov, and later also his heir Chernikov – were members of the Politburo since 1967. But the greatest triumph of the Army and GRU was in 1977, when the new brezhnevian constitution founded the “Security Council”, becoming a self-supporting and formally independent legal and political force. It was a victory of the Army over KGB. It was a victory of Eurasia. The cautious and never hastening Brezhnev had fulfilled his promise – made to the eurasian lobby – to change the backstage order of the internal soviet structure of power. The army had now its rigorous agency at the highest level. Brezhnev’s strategy was on the whole continentally oriented, though space and space weapon became nevertheless the basic sphere of strategic interest. In a parallel way to working at space war projects, the geopolitics of the Brezhnev epoch elaborated applicable ideological and political models taking into account the new strategic and military nomenclature and typology of the space age. It is important to mention in this context the ideas of the author and ideologist of the patriotic movement A.Prokhanov, tightly linked to definite geopolitical groups in the General Staff since the times of marshall Ogarkov..Prokhanov assures that the Soviet-eurasian military strategy at the end of the 1970s – first half of the 1980s seriously elaborated the project of a new continental-space civilization based on a combination of spiritual, “soil” and metaphysical traditions of Eurasia with ultra-modern techniques, space stylistics and the global system of the “new communications”. This, in Prokhanov’s opinion, should become the Eurasian answer to the American pattern of “star wars”, exhibiting the future space age as the celebration of the anglo-saxon idea not only on the planet, but also in the universe. To the American universe, the American Space, the “soil-futuristical”  ideologists of the General Staff, according to Prokhanov, were ready to oppose the Russian universe, the eurasian universe, the image of Great Eurasia, projecting itself on boundless regions of stars and planets. The “neighbours” at the Lubyanka had chosen a Cosmos arranged according to the image of “insular” mercantile-colonial civilizations of the extreme West. The American pattern fully suited them. So, in the newest technological shapes, we again meet with the most ancient themes, with voices from a millennial history, with the call from our far ancestors always solving an essentially single problem: “Is it necessary to destroy Carthago?”- in whatever shape this problem ever presented itself.

Geopolitics of marshal Ogarkov

One of the  immediate heirs of Shtemenko’s geopolitical mission was marshal N.V. Ogarkov, eminent geopolitician, strategist and eurasist. He carried on the activity of the “Polar” Order within the Army to the middle of the ‘80s. Of the three brezhnevian chiefs of the General Staff – Zakharov, Kulikov, Ogarkov (all three convinced eurasists) – the brightest was Ogarkov, an ingenious connoisseur of masking, many times strategically fooling both external and internal atlantists. Ogarkov was the organizer of the Prague operation, which passed so smoothly only because he managed to fully confuse NATO intelligence services the and to impose on them some excellently sent misinformation. It is curious to mark that the events of the “Prague spring”, ended for democratic putschists in a “sad autumn”, were somehow a strategic duel between two characters dedicated to the deepest secrets of the planetary conflict. Today it is well-known that the occult author and director of the “Prague spring” was David Goldstucker. In this operation he was confronted to the eurasist Ogarkov, and it is necessary to notice that Ogakov’s victory was not simply the victory of rough force of the Soviet tanks, but a victory of thought, cunning and magnificent mastering of the art of misinformation, “camouflage”, with the help of which NATO leadership was led to commit the worst mistakes and had no time for that reaction which, of course, doctor Goldstucker and his creatures (Dubchek, Havel etc.) from the beggining counted upon. Ogarkov pioneered the creation of “Spetsnaz” [special forces], called to perform local and instant operations in the back-zone of the opponent’s front, absolutely necessary for the success especially of continental, local military operations. Geopolitically marshal Ogarkov always openly (in contrast to the hidden and cautious eurasist Grechko) defended the “eurasian project” and aspired to transform the USSR Armed Forces so that they could conduct themselves in the best way in a long, local war with prevailing conventional weapons. After Krushev the question about “nuclear and intercontinental” kinds of weapons acquired a symbolical sense – depending on the emphasis of the military doctrine on “global war ” or on “local war ” in army circles defined as “ours” and “theirs”, that is representatives of the atlantist or eurasian lobby: “ local war” with application of conventional armaments and without using nuclear weapons was the slogan of the “eurasists”, and “total nuclear war” the slogan of the atlantists, never stopping to put ideological pressure on the Army. Around Ogarkov the military élite of eurasian orientation was grouped together. First of all, his fellow comrades were marshals Akhromeev and Yazov. Both of them, especially Akhromeev, were secretly devoted to the “Polar Order ”, founded in the Soviet Army already by Mikhail Tukhachevsky in parallel to Aralov’s similar organization, created by him immediately after the appearance of GRU.

The Afghanistan catastrophe

The huge concentration of power in the hands of the eurasist military after 1977 threatened the atlantists’s clan. To KGB and other servants of the “Dancing Death” inside the Soviet government it was necessary to undertake any urgent counter-measures. Precise data allow to believe that the Afghanistan war was inspired by KGB to discredit the Army in the course of a long and insensate conflict and to provoke the atlantic interference in the internal political situation on part of the US. The Afghanistan conflict is considered as the instigating of KGB against the Soviet Army and, more widely, against the whole eurasian lobby, by such specialists of occult sovietology as Pierre de Villemarest and Jean Parvulesco. Knowing about the geopolitical projects of general Shtemenko, and in particular, about the geopolitical and strategic value of Afghanistan, the people from Lubyanka decided to provoke an armed and forced intervention in the afghani internal political situation. (It is necessary to notice, thus, that Shtemenko himself excluded such interference, insisting on peaceful integration and gradual economic-strategic infiltration of Afghanistan in complete correspondence with the normal logics of any organic and natural economic and cultural expansion on the north-south axis). And not only starting an insensate war, but also its irresolute, uncertain, dull conducting was a consequence of KGB interference in the affairs of the Army – since the atlantists needed the USSR to lose the war, a war which could result in the definitive destruction of the Eurasian block. Therefore in Afghanistan KGB special forces arranged acts of terrorism against the peaceful afghani population – that was a perfect absurdity, if the Soviet troops really wanted to integrate Afghanistan and to make it a geopolitical vassal. From above through the Party and the Politburo the atlantists, vice-versa, tried to rein the most reasonable military operations, sometimes stopping them, when they began to be crowned with success. Pierre de Villemarest affirms that this war was lost only because the highest ranks in the Soviet government wanted it to be lost. Anyway, this war was fatal for the Army, GRU and the Eurasian Order.

The “right-wing” in KGB and the Andropov paradox

In the post-brezhnevian epoch one very important point began to show, characteristic for all history of the invisible fight of the two Orders. Its meaning is that the atlantist lobby in Eurasia, as we often stressed, leans not only to the “left” (though, certainly, this is preferred owing to some typological affinity of their concept itself with the atlantist plot), but also to the “right”. For this reason post-war NKVD-KGB, remaining essentially atlantist, adopted some definite ideological features of Army, conservative, “right” orientation. Genetically ascending to the squads of anti-soil, anti-Russian and anti-state punitive red gangs of the ‘20s, KGB at the same time has undergone to a significant influence of “right-wing” eurasists of GRU and the General Staff in those times when Stalin’s imperialism was dominant. Such duplicity of KGB logically resulted in a definite compromise in KGB structure, which can explain all the political and conspirological “oddness” linked to this organization. If the substance and the major centre of KGB remained purely atlantist, integrated in the united planetary network of atlantist intelligences, at the periphery, among ordinary employees and even officers, a “nationalist” atmosphere developed on the whole. However this “Lubyanka nationalism” (sometimes joined with a rather strong judeophobia) always corresponded to the principle “blood over soil”- that is, it never had actually a continental, imperial, eurasian character. And such situation rather suited the figures of the atlantist Order, as this “naive nationalism” of the ordinary employees served as a perfect masking for the network of anti-soil, “messianic” and mondialist agents. As a whole, post-war KGB was typologically similar to panslavist groups inside the imperial government on the eve of the First World War and with racist, xenophobe organizations in the Reich, serving as a cover for the atlantist residents. In this perspective it is necessary to consider the coming to power of Yuri Andropov, former KGB chief, after Brezhnev’s death. The above mentioned reasons of KGB duplicity will help to understand the duality of Andropov’s role, and also the dualist image of this figure, which can be simultaneously considered as both father of perestroyka  and democratization, “accomplished” by Gorbachev, and extreme conservative attempting to restore the totalitarian epoch of Lavrenty Berya.* It is curious, that among simple russian people in relation to Andropov two opposite estimations are common: “Andropov – jew – sionist” and “Andropov – patriot – anti-semite”. (Of course, both these deffinitions should be “metaphorically” understood). Actually, Andropov’s  riddle is simple – he is a representative of KGB, i.e. complete and convinced atlantist, loyal to his Order of the “Dancing Death”. He was simultaneously “jew – sionist” and “patriot – anti-Semite”, as this pair looks contradictory only in extremely simplified conspirological patterns, whereas actually the conspirological picture is much more complex, and its key factors are neither national nor political criteria, but only fundamental geopolitical orientations more often carefully kept secret to the outsiders. The coming of Andropov was the second terrible blow against the Army after the beginning of the Afghanistan war. Now the authority in the state was in the hands of a member of that organization which during all its existence had but one goal – to erase the Order of Eurasia inside the USSR, to shatter the secret structures created by Aralov, Tukhachevsky, Shtemenko, Ogarkov, Akhromeev and other eurasists, to blow up Eurasia from the inside, to make once and for all of the idea of a new continental block an unrealizable utopia, a fiction, to gain definitive victory to “New Carthago”, to the US, to establish together with the CIA the New World Order on the planet, the New Trade Construction. The coming of Andropov, the coming of the “right of KGB”, meant no more an no less as the beginning of perestroyka.

The double agent Mikhail Gorbachev

The preliminary phase of perestroyka – preparing the new cadres, allocation of roles, introducing the necessary people into the government, the general script of  the events – all this was carried out  by Yuri Andropov together with other atlantist  analysts of special services and experts from the Orders of the “Dancing Death”. But Andropov well understood that at any stage of perestroyka the eurasists could try to take revenge, to throw off the atlantists from KGB and Politburo and to lead the country according to an eurasian policy. Therefore the choice of the major figure of the new policy fell on the most evasive and uncertain of the then supreme leaders, who was so cautious, flexible and elusive, that none of the two sides did know for what Order he actually worked. On the other hand, according to the most ancient traditions of Order of Atlantic, to which Andropov belonged, it was accepted to give special attention to people whose appearance showed some eloquent defect. According to this principle were selected the highest priests of the cult of the aegyptian ass-headed god Seth. Gorbachev with his mark (which, by the way, one Mussulman – traditionalist has read as an arabian inscription of  three letters – kaf, f?, ra, that gives “Kafir”, i.e. “hypocrite”) was the most eligible figure. Promoting Gorbachev, Andropov calculated  that his candidature would satisfy both geopolitical groupings, as the solution of internal tensions in the USSR already for a long time had ripened and the political change should logically be backed by both atlantists and eurasists. The atlantists’ interest in change was obvious, but also the eurasists – after the beginning of the Afghanistan war and the coming of Andropov to power – were not anymore interested in preserving the status quo, and consequently would easily accept the transformation. Gorbachev was convenient and useful to everyone. As Gorbachev’s guardians on behalf of the two conflicting Orders were apponted A.I.Lukyanov and A.N.Yakovlev. Both these figures were the immediate participants to the ramified continental conspiracy, showing however two conflicting parties.

The true face of Anatoliy Lukyanov

Since 1987 Anatoliy Ivanovic Lukyanov became the head of the so-called “administrative organs”. Now the destiny of any appointment or promotion among the highest military ranks depended on him. Lukyanov, always showing loyalty to Gorbachev, constantly tried, nevertheless, to interpret in the eurasist key the ambiguous and nebulous instructions of the new Kremlin leader. Gorbachev’s aspiration to terminate the Afghanistan conflict was in the hands of the Army, and there are some reasons to believe that Lukyanov was involved in this geopolitical action. As flexible and cautious as Gorbachev, Lukyanov, contrary to him, had a strict and clear geopolitical attitude. His purpose, as well as the purpose of the “Polar” Order, was the Great Eurasia from Mongolia up to the Mediterranean, the Pax Eurasiatica, the great continental union. Lukyanov was obliged by virtue of his position to control GRU and to supervise the General Staff, but, actually, this accurate and quiet man was not the “guardian of the messianic bolsheviks ” upon the military eurasian state within the state, but the messenger of GRU, surveilling the bolsheviks-atlantists on behalf of the Army. Being covered by his ostensibly standing on a “centre-left” position, Lukyanov realized in the Supreme Soviet a special mission, whose sense consisted in forming the parliamentary block oriented for the benefit of the secret eurasian mission.

“ Mr. Perestroyka  ”

Aleksandr Nikolaevic Yakovlev already from the beginning of the ‘70s was one of the major ideologists of the open atlantism in the USSR. Dues must be given, that he started his open attacks against the patriots-eurasists already in 1974, when the positions of GRU were very strong and when Grechko already was member of the Politburo. By openely invoking the ideological pogrom of the “national-bolshevik” literature, which in those years served as a tribune for the ciphered exchange of information, ideas, concepts and projects for all patriotic eurasian lobby, Yakovlev accepted to run a definite risk. And despite intercession from Andropov and the highest circles of KGB after the publication of famous paper «Against anti-historicism», the manifest of russophobe and anti-patriotic atlantism, he nevertheless had to be sent away from Russia. The truth was that KGB had decided to turn “poison into medicine” and to use Yakovlev’s envoy in Canada for activating an espionage atlantist network. According to the informations collected by Jean Parvulesco in his report The GRU Galaxy, in Ottawa, where Yakovlev was sent afterwards, he entered into contact with David Golstucker, who represented at that time in the US the international interests of Israel, under the cover of his involvement in confidential negotiation with a Chicago firm linked to nuclear power engineering. Dr. David Golstucker who, as it is known, was a relevant figure not only in Israeli special services, but also directly in special services of anglo-saxon countries (this on the whole reminds of a situation characteristic also for Soviet KGB), elaborated together with Yakovlev the atlantist strategy of the future perestroyka. This fact is so well-known in the West, that Yakovlev’s name there is just “Mr. Perestroyka”. So already for the second time in history, practically the same figures prepared for a desperate, complex, dangerous and capturing geopolitical duel. Once before, during the Prague spring, Goldstucker, agent of  the“Dancing Death”, suffered a crushing defeat from GRU – from the collected, clever, brilliant and courageous servants of the Order of Eurasia, general Shtemenko and marshal Ogarkov. The same Goldstucker ten years after prepared his revenge. This time GRU and Soviet General Staff must be attacked on their own territory, instead of “neutral” Czechoslovakia. And this time Goldstucker hoped not for the slow NATO with its huge, terrible, but in some situations useless nuclear arsenal. Now the major destructive weapon of the resident of planetary atlantism – Goldstucker – should become the swollen “Mr. Perestroyka”, the brand-new tactical weapon of the Order of the Red Ass, hope of the atlantic battle orders, captain of the occult Anglo-Saxon “spetsnaz”, sent from Ottawa behind the lines of the Eurasist opponent.

Between false alternatives

The true logics of perestroyka, that is the logics of the cyclical manoeuvring of the super-uncertain Gorbachev between two poles – a vivid reminder the course of illness with manic-depressive psychoses –  as a matter of fact remained completely incomprehensible until the same August putsch, for the reason that very few guessed the true role of Anatoliy Lukyanov. Such conspiracy resulted, eventually, in the catastrophe of the eurasian lobby. The atlantic authors of the anti-imperial project of perestroyka resorted in this case to a traditional method – the creation of a pseudo-opposition, i.e. the substitution of a false “conservative” pole to the real one. Since the true enemies of the atlantists were not simply nationalists, but “ nationalists of an imperial, continental kind ”, “continentalists”, it is natural that the pseudo-opposition to the open atlantism of “Mr. Perestroyka” should be anything but eurasist. Following this logics the people from the Atlantic Order, with the active involvement of KGB, created parallel and consequently false poles. These poles were:

1) “communists – conservatives”. Their symbols were Yegor Ligachev and then Ivan Polozkov (both of them at some moment vanished as smoke, and this is not surprising, as their opposition was generally not based on any principles, and besides was a centuries old and well-known set-up).
2) “patriots – nationalists”. This movement was created through the active involvement of KGB, which projected chauvinistically a judeophobe position on marginal groupings of sincere but short-sighted patriots, thus setting up a special algorithm of “patriotic movement”, unable to cause any serious harm to the more and more legalized atlantist lobby.
3) “national-bolsheviks”. This current was more interesting and stood close to the conceptions of the eurasist lobby, but, thanks to the efforts of KGB, the sense of measure here was lost and the “national-bolshevik”conception assumed a repelling, grotesque and extremist character – both in the sense of an excessive accentuation of “leninism”, and in the sense of excessive judeophobia.
4) finally, the highest ruse of the atlantist KGB was to promote KGB itself as an opposition to the “democrats” – and this course too worked, since even to open employees of “Lubyanka” the “patriots” referred with definite trust, and even with some hope.

And at this time KGB detachments arranged the atlantist revolutions in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, staged the show of repression in Romania, broke the Berlin wall, betraid Honecker, threw off Zhivkov, helped the separatists in the Baltic Republics and Caucasus, and as a culmination of their atlantist triumph, prepared the theatrical putsch in August 1991!
So “the most elusive man” with a characteristic mark on his front plied between “Mr. Perestroyka” and Anatoliy Lukyanov, but exteriorly it seemed, that his second pole was not at all Lukyanov, but someone different, more odious, more scandalous, more showy, but really either a completely insignificant figure, or a clear straw-man. GRU and the Army with expectation and impatience looked at Anatoliy Lukyanov. Yes, to some changes – end of the insensate war, reduction of intercontinental arms, foreign policy steps towards Germany, Japan and China – the eurasists could pay compliments. Even the dedication to the theme of the “common european home” in the “Polar” Order could be easily interpreted in the key, since this doctrine was drawn from the geopolitical arsenal of that eurasist opposition within the SS to which belonged Axmann, Hildebrandt, Doleschallek, Kaufmann etc. (typologically linked with the Order of Eurasia in GRU). But the ruin of the Union, the attacks against the Army, the attempts to involve the Army in nationalist and micro-territorial conflicts, the suicidal policies in the Baltic Republics, shattering the last remains so valuable for the eurasists of the Ribbentropp-Molotov pact, the promotion of uncontrolled mafia and open criminals into the political arena, and many other things led GRU in a blind alley. But Anatoliy Lukyanov remained in the shadow. Cautiously, consequently and step by step he prepared a back strike, decisive and final. Up to last moment it seemed that everything could be saved in a moment, and then the eurasist lobby would use all the positive geopolitical sides of “perestroyka”, having done with “Mr. Perestroyka” and his accomplices, who from then on were all “burned”, and the new great era would begin, free from the communists, atlantists and servants of the “Dancing Death”, the era of Eurasia, Cosmic Eurasia, era of Sacral Solar Continent, Era of the East. But has burst August 1991.

Putsch, culmination of the occult war

Deputy Obolenskiy, member of the comission of inquiry of business about the affair of GKChP [Gosudarstvenniy Komitet po Chrezvichaynomu Polozhenyu; State Committe for the State of Emergency within the PCUS], a few time after the putsch made a strange declaration to the mass media: «The truth concerning the events of August 1991, probably, will be found out only by our descendants one hundred years from now». What terrible secret touched Obolenskiy, investigating the history of putsch?  From the point of view of geopolitical conspirology, the argument here can be only one: he had touched materials linked to the occult war of two Orders behind the scenes of power, to the mysterious opposition of Order of Eurasia and Order of Atlantic. Only in this case, the declaration of deputy Obolenskiy acquires sense, and his reliance on safety of secret becomes clear. The August putsch was (or should be, on premeditation of his authors) the culmination of geopolitical opposition, the decisive moment of the invisible war. The order of Atlantic could not ignore that the eurasists prepared for winter 1991-1992 years a definite operation, which should result in introducing a military regime on the whole USSR territory under pretext of stabilizing the social, political and economic situation. They also perfectly understood that the ideological attitude of the eurasist military direction would have been non-communist and patriotically oriented, but without the “anti-semitism”, xenofobia and “panslavism” traditional for KGB. In other words, the military direction promised to be stable, liberal in the economic field, geopolitically correct, exempt from terrorist kurtosises peculiar to bolshevik forms of dictatorship. Besides, the Eurasian Military Regime, Roman-imperial Regime, had every chance to be popular to the highest degree, as it would refrain from “communist dogmatism” and “marxist utopism”, on the one hand, but on the other – it would be quite responsive to the natural inclination to hierarchy, to discipline, to centralization and communitarianism, sociality, “integrality” (in Khomyakov’s sense) of all true Eurasian ethnoses. The patriotism of the Military Regime should have been imperial, instead of “russian” and “nationalist” in the narrow sense of this concept. All this made such perspective not only unacceptable, but fatal and deathly to the atlantist lobby inside the USSR, and also for world-wide atlantist mondialism. Despite of the huge destructions caused to the country by the agents of the “Order of the Dancing Death”, by “Mr. Perestroyka”, together with his comrade from KGB, Shevardnadze (accursed, by the way, by his own Georgian people), the Order of the Eurasists knew how to use this negative situation to the benefit of their own position, since in the secret GRU departments there worked worthy followers of the great russian strategists – Shtemenko and Ogarkov. The geopolitical duel with Goldstucker could end with a defeat for this skilled and active representant of the Atlantic Order. The major problem for the atlantists was to prevent the forming of a war situation in the USSR, to which, it appear, the logics of events was leading. Just to this purpose the August putsch was organized.

Miscalculations of marshal Yazov

The major mistake of the eurasists in August 1991, and especially the personal mistake of marshal Yazov, was to trust the head of KGB Kryuchkov. It was a strategic trap. KGB already for many years had tried to create for its agents an image of “patriots-nationalists”, using the peripheral mass of the “uninitiated” employees sincerely believing in the “jewish-masonic” conspiracy and considering themselves as “nationalists” or “national-bolsheviks”. On the other hand, the fraudulent manoeuvres were made also at the  top of power – both Chebrikov and Kryuchkov aimed at solidarizing with the eurasist-military against “cosmopolitans-democrats”. (As a matter of fact, the whole democratic movement was of course organized just by the KGB, and further, it was even more artificial and “built-on” than the patriotic movement, since for the Russian and other originally eurasian ethnoses it is much more natural to support the “right”, than the “left” – this is an historical constant). To conceal this double game, the atlantists from KGB created myths about the “jewish-masonic wing”of KGB (as such were called, in particular, its Moscow branch as a counterweight to the Union’s, and later the KGB of Yeltsin’s RSFSR [Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic], etc.). As a matter of fact, KGB was busy with sharply anti-eurasian activities, destroying the structures of the eurasian network in the countries of Eastern Europe, overthrowing “soil” and anti-atlantist regimes (such as the Ceausescu regime, which, by the way, was always oriented towards an eurasian continental block and hated the atlantist “sell-out” of the USSR government – see Claude Carnou “Again on  the  East” in the review Crisis, n. 5 April 1990, France). Anyway, the GKChP affair plainly proves that some rather unclear moves of Kryuchkov succeeded in convincing some eurasists – marshal Yazov and Oleg Balkanov – to hurry with the forming of a war situation, and to accept the help from KGB, on condition that it took distance from its atlantism and stood, in the end, on the side of the Army and ready to act against the “democrats”. Probably, Kryuchkov had stipulated some conditions also for his organization, as in case of a rigorous military eurasist regime the KGB structures of course would be erased – at least, in their old, party-terrorist, mondialist and atlantist kind. What arguments the agents of Order of Eurasia reported to marshal Yazov, we do not know yet. It is obvious only that the signing of the Novo-Ogarev Agreements had not the slightest relation to this. Everything could be changed once again, annulling any “paper” which had come out from under the pen of casual people, not so clearly realizing the geopolitical situation, led by the extremely evasive “Gorby”- delivered to this position not for taking decisions, but for “masking”, and by virtue of a mark of definitely occult “election”. What must have said Kryuchkov to marshal Yazov, for the latter – essentially devoted to the strategy of the Eurasian Order – to jeopardize the destiny of a multi-millennial occult opposition, the destiny of the continent, destiny of the Eurasian Space, a destiny inevitable and, as it seemed, so close to victory? Why Yazov has chosen the chief of the most anti-eurasist body? For the moment, we have to limit ourselves to assumptions about it. And is perfectly clear that the mistake of marshal Yazov hides some terrible secret, maybe even involving any paranormal, “magic” or telepathical influence, or the effects of some special psychedelic drugs. All this is not so unbelievable, if we remember the testimonies of some GKChP members about their complete amnesya during those three fatal days. Only complete idiots could consider that people, having arrived up to the highest levels of their political, military, intelligence and “conspirological” career, can in such a decisive situation behave like irresponsible drunken tramps, that is stoplessly getting drunk and going to get over it in the city, crowded with tanks and “democratic” propagandists. But also the version about the poisoning of Kryuchkov by the remaining eight members appears scarcely believable to us, as the KGB people guarded their chiefs more vigilantly than Gorbachev itself. In the affair about the “mistakes of marshal Yazov”, probably, there took place a combination of many occult-ideological and parapsychological factors, synchronically operating. But what “weapon” this time has been used by the Atlantic Order? We shall talk about it very soon.

“Mr. Perestroyka” goes on attack

Immediately after the arrest of the members of GKChP, as always happens at the climax of conspirological and ideological efforts, the definite aspects of a conspiracy usually remaining in the shadow were overtly shown. The most open moment was the emerging on the surface of “Mr. Perestroyka” (N.Yakovlev) in the russian parliament. Naturally, his mission consisted not in notifying the “naive” deputies about the “thugs, who again could surround Gorbachev”. This  speech was pronounced by “Mr. Perestroyka” as a smoke-screen. Yakovlev had come to the russian parliament with a request of arresting Lukyanov. The russian parliament, made of completely incompetent and casual people, not having any explicit geopolitical attitude and acting on casual, random and anarchist emotions in its coward lobbying, after the shock of the Moscow farce, could spoil the whole deal. Yeltsin, whether he had not received in time the information, or simply had forgotten about the most important thing (the mental condition of the Russian president also causes to believe that he too was under some parapsychological influence, as remarked not only by european conspirologists, but also by many western journalists – in the beginning explaining Yeltsin’s complete unadequacy by his belonging to the “extreme right”, but later forced to resort to the version about occult or psychotrope influences), concentrated his crushing polemics against the eight, having forgotten about the principal task.
Yakovlev came to the “white house” (more reminding in that moment a “yellow house ”) to demand the arrest of Lukyanov. Yeltsin compliantly repeated for “Mr. Perestroyka” the famous phrase – “behind the conspiracy of the eight there was Lukyanov, he is major ideologist of the conspiracy ”.

Lukyanov and the ritual dwell on marshal Akhromeev’s tomb

Lukyanov – here is the secret explanation of the August putsch. Lukyanov it was necessary to remove at any cost. Just in his hands the threads of the eurasist occult structure were concentrated. Since 1987 just Anatoliy Lukyanov was the protector of the “Polar” Order, Eurasian Order, hope of Eternal Imperial Rome. The putsch was just aimed at him. But Lukyanov himself – alone among the eurasists, one way or another linked with the GKChP affair – had not yielded to Kryuchkov’s instigation and was legally absolutely not implicated in the putsch. Trying to simply involve him too was impossible. This was an unpreviewed and annoying miscalculation for the atlantists. Therefore Yakovlev, bypassing all legal norms, hurried in a  “revolutionary way” to get Lukyanov accused by Yeltsin’s stuttering lips of being the ideologist of the conspiracy (on the ground that Lukyanov really was the ideologist, but of the other conspiracy, the “Polar” conspiracy, conspiracy of the saviours of the great Continental Power, conspiracy of Eurasia against the Western Islands). But despite of the imprisonment of Lukyanov, it was nevertheless not possible to present him as the head of the conspiracy and to erase on this basis all the the eurasist agents network, all GRU secret structures. The atlantist winnesr could lift only the higher layer of “party” and military conservatives, which even so did not represent a special danger. Except for Pugo’s assassination, the most important blow to the lobby of Eurasia was the aenygmatic death of marshal Akhromeev and the subsequent strange events on his yet fresh tomb. Here it is necessary to make a short digression in the history of the Atlantic Order, and specially in the history of the medieval Order “ Minstrels of Morgana”, whose emblem was the “Dancing Death”, Dance Macabre. According to Grasset d’Orcet, who was occupied with the study of this Order, its adherents used as a hieroglyphic password the symbol of the “Revived Deadman” or  “Dead leaving its tomb”. In some definite branches of this Order, dealing not so much with occult politics and geopolitics, how much with “magic” and “necromancy”, there was a ritual exhumation of corpses with symbolical and occult purpose. The whole history of death and subsequent exhumation of Akhromeev’s corpse adresses to the implication in his death’s crime of the Atlantic Order and maybe, its most dark, magic ramifications. Anyway, western conspirologists univocally associate the detail of the profanation of the marshal’s body with  to the “ritual exhumation”, till now practiced in the West by the members of rather dark sects. Probably, the atlantist agents also hoped to find any secret documents hidden together with Akhromeev, or any special marks on his corpse. All this becomes more than believable, once we take into account the major role of Akhromeev in the army “Polar” Order and his tight connection to Ogarkov, one of the major characters of the Eurasist Order. Anyway, after the putsch the atlantists have undertaken some resolute steps to beheading the eurasists. But after one month it became clear that their attack was wrecked, and behind their hysterical attempts urgently to complete the ruin of the state, fear and panic were also clearly visible. The order of Eurasia was not definitively erased and now comes its turn to strike back. Some definite signs allow to consider that this blow should be the Last.

Metaphysics of the occult war

The opposition of Order of Atlantic to Order of Eurasia through the centuries and millennia, being vested in the most various forms, is in a sense the major conspirological content of history, the history of great planetary passions, history of peoples and religions, races and traditions, spirit and flesh, war and peace. In the confrontation between two Orders one must not see the simplified moralistic image of the fight between Good and Evil, Truth and Lie, Angels and Demons, and so on. This fight of two opposite types of world-view, two metaphysical pictures of Life, two paths to the cosmos and through the cosmos, two great Principles, not only opposing each other, but also indispensable to each other – since on this pair all cosmogonic and cosmological process, all cyclical course of human history is based.
The order of Eurasia, Order of the Male Principle, Sun, Hierarchy, is the projection of the Mount, Apollon, Ormudz, Solar Christ-in-Glory, Christ-pantocrator. Eurasia as the Earth of East is the Earth of Light, Earth of Paradise, Earth of Empire. The Earth of Hope. The Earth of the Pole.
The order of the Atlantic, Order of the Female Principle, Moon, Orgiastic Equality is the projection of the Egyptian Seth, Python, Ahriman, Christ Suffering, Human, immersed in the metaphysical despair of the lonely Getsemane prayer. The Atlantic, Atlantis as the Earth of the West, is the Earth of the Night, the Earth of the “pit of exile” (as an islamic sufi said), Centre of Planetary Skepticism, Earth of the Great Metaphysical Spleen.
Both Orders have the deepest ontological and sacred roots, and have the metaphysical reasons to be what they are. To consider any of these Orders as an historical accident means to deny to the secret logics of human and cosmic cycles. The choice of a geopolitical path mirrors the choice of a metaphysical path, esoterical path, the path of the Spirit across the universe. Therefore any warranties do not exist, therefore it is impossible, strictly speaking, to affirm that Eurasia is good and Atlantic is bad, that Rome is saint and Carthago is wicked, nor the contrary. But everyone called by the Order should commit a resolute step and serve the Order. The laws of our world are such that the outcome of the Great Battle is not predetermined, the outcome of the drama “Eurasia against Atlantis” depends on the totality of planetary solidarity of all those called on to serve, all the soldier of geopolitics, all the secret agents of Land and the secret agents of Sea. The outcome of the cosmological war of Apollon with the Snake Python depends on each of us, whether we understand it or not.

The end of Times

All traditional religious and metaphysical doctrines describe the End of Times, the end of the cycle as the Last Battle, as the Final battle. The various traditions differently treat this conflict, and sometimes what in one tradition is represented as “the party of Evil”, becomes in other tradition “the party of Good ” and vice-versa. For example, for the orthodox christians at the end of Times judaism is considered as the religion of the Anti-Christ, and for jews “ the goi-christians from the northern country of king Gog ” act as a concentration of escatological Evil. Hinduists consider that the Tenth Avatar, the one who should come at the end of the cycle, will erase “Buddhists”, and Buddhists believe that the Buddha of Forthcoming Times, the Savior Maytreya will appear among a buddhist community etc. All this does not testify about the relativity of the division of roles in the Last Battle, but about the impossibility to early choose a self-evident Good, to secure oneself and obviously to take part in the escatological battle on the “right” side. Therefore it is said about the Last Times “even the chosen ones will be tempted”. The choice of one of two escatological “parties” cannot be something formal. It is a choice of the Spirit, it is the Highest Hazard, it is the Great Metaphysical Drama. For this reason nothing in the reality of the escatological epoch – and many traditional and religious authorities affirm that we now live just in such epoch – can serve as absolute negativeness or absolute positiveness. And it is especially silly to absolutize any political form, equating it to “Absolute Evil” or to “Absolute Good”. Even the beginning of the true choice stands far beyond the border of exterior political ideologies, beyond the border of the relative dividing between democrats, fascists and communists. The true choice begins at a level of geopolitics and ascends further on “along a prophetical helix” (according to the expression of Jean Parvulesco) to the abysses of Mysticism, Metaphysics, Gnosis, to the abysses of the Incomprehensible Divine Secret. Eurasian Order and Atlantic Order are the last secret of exterior, human, public history. As a matter of fact, inside these Orders there are many other mysterious and closed spheres linked with Pure Metaphysics. But anyway, the true, rigorous and conscientious escatological fight begins just with Order of Eurasia or Order of Atlantic. Even not diving deep into the ultimate secrets, simply to work in an Order is already enough to be an active, called and elected participant of the Great Drama.

Endkampf

The German word “Endkampf” (“Final Battle”, “Battle of the End”) well expresses the essence of the modern planetary situation. Escatological motives, the motives of the End of Times, penetrate not only religious and mystical movements, but also immediate politics, economy, daily life. In Israel, since 1962 devout jews live in a special “final Time”, in the “time of the Messiah”. The US aspire to establish on the planet a special New World Order. European mondialist Jacques Attali preaches for the coming of the last phase of a special Trade Regime. Islamic peoples (especially shi’ites) expect in the near future the incoming Mahdi, the hidden Imam. Hinduists are assured of the rapid termination of Kali-Yuga, the Dark Century. There is a revival of racist escatologism on behalf of world national-socialist movements. In the Christian communities prophesies ever more circulate about the Last Pope (Flos Florum) for the roman catholics and about the  Last Patriarch for the orthodoxes. Lamaists are sure that the present Dalai Lama will be the last. China has hardened in mystical expectation. Soviet communism fell suddenly and unexpectedly. All these signs tell us about the beginning of the Endkampf, about the beginning of the  Last Battle. And in the eschatological context even the words of the bolshevik songs «It is our last and decisive fight» sound as a disturbing revelation, as a hint to the planetary Endkampf.

Order and “ours”

The term “ours” [nashi] was not often used in a global geopolitical context.  The famous German geopolitician and jurist Carl Schmitt insisted on the necessity of introducing the concept “ours” for explaining the geopolitical self-determination of a nation, state or ethnic block. The famous tele-reporter Aleksandr Nevzorov realised it in practice in a series of broadcastings. “Ours” has become today in the Russian Empire an univocally eurasist concept, including not only Russians or Slavs, but also Tartars, Turks, Ugro-Finns etc., realizing a genetic connection to imperial space and imperial idea. In practice Nevzorov’s “ours” is a synthetic definition of native born Eurasians, imperial autochtones, masters, by right of culture and birth, of the great land. It is indicative that the atlantists in Russia do not use this word (it is logical, for here they are among “not ours” [ne-nashi], another’s; for them, their own “ours” live beyond the border of the continent, on a distant and dismal “Island”). But for Jean Parvulesco, who too made of this term a fundamental geopolitical and conspirological concept, the concept “ours” is even more all-inclusive (though he willingly ranks himself also to Nevzorov’s “ours”). Jean Parvulesco identifies the concept “ours” with the whole network of partizans of the Great Continental Bloc – from Japan to Belgium, from China to France, from India to Spain, from Iran to Germany, from Russia to Italy. “Ours” for Parvulesco is a synonym of the Eurasist Order itself with all branches and groups, finding themselves, consciously or not, obviously or secretly, in the zone of its geopolitical, mystical and metaphysical influence. “Ours” is the united invisible escatological front of the Continent, Front of the Land, Front of the Absolute East, whose western province is Europe, “our” Europe, Europe opposed to “West”, the Europe of Tradition, Soil, Spirit. “Ours” is both roman catholics and orthodoxes and islamists, both hinduists and taoists and lamaists, both pagans and agnostics and mystics… But only those among them who are devoted to the Continent of East, to its mysterious and unknown Destiny. Parvulesco speaks about a “parallel France”, “parallel Romania”, “parallel Germany”, “parallel Russia”, “parallel China” etc. as about a spiritual substance, as about the invisible spiritual measure of real countries secretly united into the only “parallel Eurasia”, “Eurasia of Pure Spirit”. “Ours” are the soldiers of “parallel Eurasia”, heroes of Absolute East, all of them serving through the occult logics of the “prophetical helix ” the One and Only Idea, Purpose, Hidden Principle. Once the German conservative-revolutionary, nationalist, russophile and eurasist Arthur Moeller van den Bruck said, rephrasing Khomyakov (“the Church is One”): “There is only one Reich (one Empire), as well as there is only one Church”. It is the Reich of “ours”, the Church of “ours”, it is  “our” Empire and “our” Church.

Hour of Eurasia

While we find ourselves in Eurasia, while we speak in its name, while we remain linked with its mysterious, mystical flesh – Eurasia belongs to us, is “ours”. Despite of all persecutions on the part of the atlantists, despite of all the effectiveness of their blasting strategy, despite the heavy and deep “sleep” of whole areas and whole peoples there living, despite the domination of the agents of the Atlantic Order on continental politics, on continental culture, on continental industry – the “decolonization” process is relentless. Only, we should refrain from falling into archaism, defending any obsolete cultural, social or political forms; we should not be simple conservatives, conservatives for inertness. The order of Eurasia is the total Conservative Revolution, this Great Arousing of geopolitical consciousness, it is the path of the Vertical, instead of the snake-like oscillations from left to right or attempts to move backwards. The order of Eurasia is the cruel and open duel with the strong and clever Opponent, with the Order of Seth, Red Ass, Order of the “Dancing Death”. We should throw the servants of the Ocean into the Ocean, we should ship the agents of the “Island” back to their “Island”. We should pull out from the political, cultural, national flesh of Continent those who betraid “ours”, who betraid our ideals, our concerns. Yes, our enemies have their truth. Yes, we should respect their deep metaphysical choice, we should fix our eyes into their Secret, into the secret “Pit of the West ”. But this should not influence our resoluteness, our rage, our cold and passionate Cruelty. We shall be indulgent only then, when our Continent will be free, when the last atlantist will be dropped into Salt Waters, in the elements symbolically belonging to the Egyptian god with the Crocodile face. Judging by definite signs, “the Time is near”. Endkampf, Last Battle should burst very soon. Are you ready, gentlemen of the “Polar Order”? Are you ready, soldiers of Eurasia? Are you ready, wise strategists of GRU? Are you ready, great peoples having made your bet by the fact itself of your birth?

Already tolls the decisive Hour of Eurasia…

The GREAT WAR OF CONTINENTS already approaches its last point.

Moscow, February 1991 – January 1992

From Sacred Geography to Geopolitics (Aleksandr Dugin)

Friday, August 30th, 2002

This text appeared under the title “Ot sakral’noy geografii k geopolitike” in  Elementy n. 4, and as the chapter 7 of “Misterii Evrazii” (Moscow 1996).

Geopolitics as “intermediate” science

Geopolitical concepts became the major factors of modern politics since a long time ago. They are built on general principles allowing to easily analyze the situation of any particular country and region.

Geopolitics in its present form is undoubtedly a worldly, “profane”, secularized science. But maybe, among all modern sciences, it saved in itself the greatest connection with Tradition and traditional sciences. René Guénon said that modern chemistry is the outcome of the desacralization of a traditional science — alchemy, as modern physics is of magic. Exactly in the same way one might say that modern geopolitics is the product of the laicizing and desacralizing of another traditional science — sacred geography. But since geopolitics holds a special place among modern sciences, and it is often ranked as a “pseudo-science”, its profanizing is not so accomplished and irreversible, as in the case of chemistry or physics. The connection with sacred geography here is rather distinctly visible. Therefore it is possible to say that geopolitics stands in an intermediate place between traditional science (sacred geography) and profane science.

Land and sea

The two primary concepts of geopolitics are land and sea. Just these two elements —Earth and Water — lie at the roots of human qualitative representation of earthly space. Through the experience of land and sea, earth and water, man enters into contact with the fundamental aspects of his existence. Land is stability, gravity, fixity, space as such. Water is mobility, softness, dynamics, time.

These two elements are in essence the most obvious display of the material nature of the world. They stand outside of man: everything is heavy and fluid. They are also inside him: body and blood. (The same happens also at a cellular level.)

The universatility of the experience of earth and water generates the traditional concept of Firmament, since the presence of the Higher Waters (the source of rain) in the sky also implies the presence of a symmetric and necessary element —earth, land, the celestial vault. Anyway, Earth, Sea, Ocean are in essence the major categories of earthly existence, and for mankind it is impossibile not to see in them some basic attributes of the universe. As the two basic terms of geopolitics, they preserve their significance both for civilizations of a traditional kind and for exclusively modern states, peoples and ideological blocks. At the level of global geopolitical phenomena, Land and Sea generated the terms: thalassocratia and tellurocratia, i.e. “ power by means of the sea ” and “ power by means of the land ”.

The force of any state and any empire is based upon the preferential development of one of these categories. Empires are either “thalassocratic”, or “tellurocratics”. The former imply the existence of a mother country and colonies, the latter of a capital and provinces on “common land”. In the case of “thalassocracy” its territory is not unified into one land space – which creates an element of discontinuity. The sea — here lies both strength and weakness of “ thalassocratic power ”. “Tellurocracy”, vice-versa, has the quality of territorial continuity.

But geographical and cosmological logics would at once complicate the seemingly simple scheme of this division: the pair “land—sea”, by reciprocal superimposition of its elements, gives birth to the ideas of “ maritime land ” and of “land water”. The maritime land is the island, i.e. the basis of maritime empire, the pole of thalassocracy. Land water or water within land are the rivers, which predetermine the development of overland empires. Just on the river is located the city, that is the capital, the pole of tellurocracy. This symmetry is symbolic, economic and geographical at the same time. It is important to notice that the status of Island and Continent is defined not so much on the basis of their physical magnitude, than on the basis of the peculiar typical consciousness of the population. So the geopolitics of the US has an insular character, despite of the size of Northern America, while insular Japan geopolitically represents an example of continental mentality, etc.

One more detail is relevant: historical thalassocracy is linked to the West and the Atlantic Ocean, while tellurocracy to the East and the Eurasian continent. (The above mentioned example of Japan is explained, thus, by the stronger “attractive” effect of Eurasia.)

Thalassocracy and Atlantism became synonyms long before colonial expansion of Great Britain or Portuguese-Spanish conquests. Already since the beginning of sea migrations waves, the peoples of West and their cultures began their Eastward movement on from the centres located on the Atlantic. The Mediterranean also did rise from Gibraltar to the Near East, rather than the other way. And on the contrary, excavations in Eastern Siberia and Mongolia prove that exactly here were the most ancient centres of civilization – that is, the central lands of the continent were the cradle of the Euroasian mankind.

Symbolism of landscape

Besides these two global categories — Land and Sea —geopolitics operates also with more particular definitions. Among thalassocratic realities, there is a differentiation between sea and oceanic formations. So, for instance, the sea civilization of the Black Sea or Mediterranean Sea are rather qualitatively different from the civilization of the oceans, i.e. insular powers and peoples dwelling on the shores of the open ocean. More particular divisions exist also between river and lake civilizations, linked to continents.

Tellurocracy too has its particular forms. So it is possible to distinguish a civilization of the Steppe and a civilization of the Forest, a civilization of the Mountains and a civilization of the Plains, a civilization of the Desert and a civilization of Ice. The varieties of landscape in sacred geography are understood as symbolical complexes linked to the specificity of state, religious and ethical ideology of the different peoples. And even in that case, when we deal with universalistic ecumenical religion, its concrete embodying in such or such people, race, or state will be identically subject to adaptation according to the local sacred-geographical context.

Desert and steppes represent the geopolitical microcosm of the nomads. Precisely in deserts and steppes the tellurocratic tendency reaches its summit, as the“water” factor here is minimally present. The empires of Desert and Steppe should logically be the geopolitical bridgehead of tellurocracy.

As an example of the empire of Steppe, one might consider the empire of Gengis Kahn, while a typical example of the empire of Wilderness is the arabian khalifat, arisen under direct influence of the nomads.

Mountains and the civilizations of mountains more often represent archaic, fragmentary. Mountain countries not only are not sources of expansion; on the contrary, there are concentrated the victims of the geopolitical expansion of other tellurocratic forces. No empire has its centre in mountain regions. Hence the so often repeated motive of sacred geography: “mountains are populated by demons”. On the other hand, the idea of the conservation of the residuals of ancient races and civilizations on the mountans is shown in the fact that precisely on the mountains the sacred centres of tradition are placed. It is even possible to say that in tellurocracies a mountain corresponds to some spiritual power.

The logical combination of both concepts — mountain as a hieratic image and plain asa  regal image— became the symbolism of the hill, i.e. a small or average height. The hill is a symbol of imperial might raising above the secular level of the steppe, but not reaching the limit of supreme power (as it is in the case of mountains). A hill is a dwelling place for a king, a count, an emperor, but not for the priest. All capitals of large tellurocratic empires are placed on a hill or on hills (often on seven hills – the number of the planets; or on five — thye number of elements, including ether; and so on).

The forest in sacred geography is close to the mountains in a definite sense. The symbolism of the tree is related to the symbolism of the mountain (both the former and the latter designate the world axis). Therefore in tellurocracies the forest also plays a peripheral function — it, too, is the “place of the priests” (druids, magi, hermits), but also at the same time the  “place of demons”, i.e. archaic residuals from a vanished past. Neither the forest zone can be the centre of the overland empire.

The tundra represents the northern analogue to the steppe and the desert, although the cold climate makes it much less significant from a geopolitical point of view. This “periphericity” reaches its apogee with ices, which, similarly to the mountains, are deeply archaic zones. It is indicative that the eskimo shamanic tradition implies departing alone among ices, where to the future shaman the world beyond is opened out. Thus, ices are a hieratic zone, the threshold of a different world.

From these primary and most general characteristics of the geopolitical map, it is possible to define the various regions of the planet according to their sacred quality. This method can also be applied to the local features of the landscape at a level of single countries or even of single localities. It is also possible to trace the likeness of ideologies and traditions of the most (apparently) different peoples, in the event that the native born landscape is the same.

East and West in sacred geography

Cardinal Ponts in the context of sacred geography have special qualitative characteristic. In the various traditions and in the various periods of these traditions, the picture of sacred geography can vary according to the cyclical phases of development of the given tradition. Thus the symbolic function of Cardinal Points often varies also. Not going deep into details,  it is possible to formulate the most universal law of sacred geography with reference to East and West.

Sacred geography on the basis of “space symbolism” traditionally considers the East as “the land of Spirit”, the paradise land, the land of a completeness, abundance, the Sacred “native land” in its fullest and most perfect kind. In particular, this idea is mirrored in the Bible text, where the eastern disposition of “Eden”is treated. Precisely such understanding is peculiar also to other abrahamic traditions (Islam and Judaism), and also to many non-abrahamic traditions — Chinese, Hindu and Iranian. “East is the mansion of the gods”, states the sacred formula of the ancient Egyptians, and the same word “east” (“neter” in aegyptian) meant at the same time “god”. From the point of view of natural symbolism, East is the place where ascends, vos-tekeat” [in russian] the sun, Light of the World, material symbol of Divinity and Spirit.

The West has the opposite symbolical meaning. It is the “country of death”, the “lifeless world”, the “green country” (as the ancient Egyptians called it). West is “the empire of exile”, “the pit of the rejected”, according to the expression of Islamic mystics. West is “anti-east”, the country of “zakata”[in russian], decay, degradation, transition from the manifest to the non-manifest, from life to death, from completeness to need, etc. West [Zapad, in russian] is the place where the sun goes, where it “sinks down”[za-padaet].

According to the given logics of natural cosmic symbolism, the ancient traditions organized their “sacred space”, founded their centres of cult, burial places, temples and edifices, and interpreted the natural and “civilizational” features of geographical, cultural and political territories of the planet. In this way, the structure itself of migrations, wars, campaigns, demographic waves, building of empires etc. was defined by the original, pragmatic logics of sacred geography. Along the East-West axis were drawn peoples and civilizations, possessing hierarchical characters — closer to the East were those closer to Sacral, to Tradition, to spiritual wealth. Closer to West, those of a more decayed, degraded and dying Spirit.

Of course this logicis was not absolute, but at the same time it was neither minor nor relative — as it is today wrongly considered by many “profane” scholars of ancient religions and traditions. As a matter of fact, sacred logics and the following cosmic symbolism were much more consciously realized, understood and practised by the ancient peoples, than it is agreed to esteem today. And even in our antisacred world, at an “unconscious” level almost always archetypes of sacred geography are preserved in their integrity, and are awoken in the most relevant and critical moments of social cataclysms.

So sacred geography univocally affirms the law of “qualitative space”, in which the East represents the symbolic “ontological plus”, and the West the “ontological minus”. According to the Chinese tradition, the East is Yang, the male, bright, solar principle, and the West is Yin, the female, dark, lunar principle.

East and West in modern geopolitics

We shall observe how this sacred-geographical logics is mirrored in geopolitics, which, being an exclusively modern science, is only focused upon the factual situation, leaving out of the frame the most sacred principles.

Geopolitics in its original formulations by Ratzel, Kjellen and Mackinder (and later by  Haushofer and the Russian eurasists) just refrained from connecting the features of the different kinds of civilizations and states to their geographical disposition. Geopoliticians stared at the fact of a fundamental difference between “insular” and “continental” powers, between “western”, “progressive” civilization and “eastern”, “despotic” and “archaic” cultural forms. Since in general the question about Spirit in its metaphysical and sacred comprehension never arose in modern science, geopoliticians left it aside, preferring to evaluate the situation in different, more modern terms, rather than through the concepts of “sacred” and “profane”, “traditional” and “antitraditional” etc.

Geopoliticians established the major differences between political, cultural and industrial development of Eastern and Western in the last centuries. The final picture is the following. The West is the centre of “material” and “technological” development. At the cultural-ideological level, there “liberal-democratic” tendencies, individualistic and humanist  world views are prevailing. At the economic level, priority is given to trade and technical modernization. In the West theories about “progress”, “evolution”, “progressive development of history” for the first time appeared, completely alien to the traditional Eastern world (and also to those periods of Western history, when a rigorous sacred tradition existed there too – as it was, in particular, in the Middle Ages). Coercion at a social level in the West acquired only an economic character, and the Law of Idea and Force was gradually replaced by the Law of Money. Gradullay a peculiar “Western ideology” was cast in the universal formula of “ideology of human rights”, which became a dominant principle in the most western regions of the planet —Northern America, and first of all the US. At an industrial level, to this ideology corresponded the idea of “developed countries , and at an economic level the concept of “free market, of “economic liberalism”. The whole aggregate of these features, with the addition of the purely military, strategical integration of the different sectors of the Western civilization, is defined today by the concept of “atlantism”. In the past century geopoliticians spoke about an “Anglo-Saxon kind of civilization” or about “capitalist, bourgeois democracy”. In this “atlantist” type the formula of “geopolitical West” found its most pure embodying

Geopolitical East represents in itself the straight opposition to geopolitical West. Instead of economic modernization, here (in the “less developed countries”) traditional, archaic modes of production of corporative, shop-manufacturing type prevail. Instead of economic coercion, more often the state uses “moral” or simply physical coercion (Law of Idea and Law of Force). Instead of “democracy” and “human right” the East gravitates around totalitarianism, socialism and authoritarianism, i.e. around various types of social regimes, whose only common feature is that the centre of their systems there is not the“individual”, “man” with his “rights” and his peculiar “individual values”, but something supra-individual, supra-human — be it “society”, “nation”, “people”, “idea”, “weltanschauung”, “religion”, “cult of the leader” etc. The East opposed to western liberal democracy the most various types of non-liberal, non-individualistic the societies — from authoritarian monarchy up to theocracy or socialism. Moreover, from a pure typological, geopolitical point of view, the political specificity of this or that regime was secondary in comparison with the qualitative dividing between “western” (= “individualist – mercantile”) order and “eastern ” (= “supra-individualist – based on force”) order. Representative forms of such anti-western civilization were the USSR, communist China, Japan about 1945 or Khomeini’s Iran.

It is curious to notice that Rudolf Kjellen, the first author to use the term “geopolitics”, illustrated the difference between West and East in this way. «A typical pet phrase of the Americans, — wrote Kjellen — is “go ahead”, that literally means “forward”. In it the interior and natural geopolitical optimism and “progressism” of the American civilization, being the extreme form of the western pattern, is mirrored. Russians usually repeat the word “nechego” [nothing] (in Russian in Kjellen’s text  — A.D.). In it are shown “pessimism”, “contemplation”, “fatalism”and “adherence to tradition,”  all peculiar features of the East ».

If we now return to the paradigm of sacred geography, we shall see the direct contradiction between the priorities of modern geopolitics (such concepts as “progress”, “liberalism”, “human rights”, “mercantile order” etc., are today positive terms for the majority of people) and the priorities of sacred geography, evaluating the various kinds of civilizations from a completely opposite point of view (concepts like “spirit”, “contemplation”, “resignation to superhuman force or superhuman idea”, “ideocracy” etc. in sacred civilizations were exclusively positive, and so remain till now for the Eastern peoples at the level of “collective unconscious”). So modern geopolitics (except for Russian eurasists, German followers of Haushofer, Islamic fundamentalists etc.) evaluate the picture of the world from an opposite perspective than traditional sacred geography. But thus both sciences converge in the description of fundamental laws of the geographical picture of civilizations.

Sacred North and sacred South

Besides the sacred-geographical determinism on an East – West axis, an extremely relevant problem is represented by the other, vertical, orientation axis — the North – South axis. Here, as well as in all remaining cases, the principles of sacred geography, the symbolism of cardinal points and the related continents, has its direct analogue in the geopolitical picture of the world, which either is naturally built up in the course of the historical process, or is consciously and artificially formed as a result of purposely actions of the leaders of such or such geopolitical formations. From the point of view of the “integral tradition”, the difference between “artificial” and “natural” is generally rather relative, as Tradition never knew anything similar to carthesian or kantian dualism, strictly separating the “subjective” from the “objective” (“phenomenal” and “noumenal”). Therefore the sacred determinism of North or South is nor just a physical, natural, landscape-climatic factor (i.e. something “objective”) or just “idea”, “concept” generated by the minds of such or such individuals (i.e. something “subjective”), but something of a third kind, exceeding both the objective and subjective poles. One might say that the sacred North, the archetype of North, halving itself in history in northern natural landscape, on the one hand, and in the idea of North, “nordism”, on the other hand.

The most ancient and original layer of Tradition univocally affirms the primacy of North above the South. The symbolism of North relates to a Source, to an original northern paradise, from where all human civilization originates. Ancient Iranic and Zoroastrian texts speak about the northern country of “Aryiana Vaeijao” and its capital “Vara”, from where the ancient arians were expelled by glaciation, which sent them Ariman, spirit of Evil and oppositor to the bright Ormudz. The ancient Veda too speak about the Northern country as the ancestral home of the Hindu, about a Sveta-dipa, White Land laying in the far north.

The ancient Greeks spoke about Hyperborea, the northern island with capital Thule. This land was considered as the motherland of the bright god Apollon. And in many other traditions it is possible to detect most ancient tracks, often forgotten and become fragmentary, of a nordic symbolism. The basic idea traditionally linked to the North is the idea of Centre, Immobile Pole, point of Eternity around which the cycle turns not only of space, but also of time. North is the land where the sun never goes even at night,  a space of eternal light. Any sacred tradition honors the Centre, the Middle, the point where contrasts appease, the symbolical place not subject to the laws of cosmic entropy. This Centre, whose symbol is the Swastika (stressing both immobility and constancy of the Centre, and mobility and changeability of the periphery), received a different name according to each tradition, but it  was always directly or indirectly linked to the symbolism of North. Therefore it is possible to say that all sacred traditions are in essence the projection of a Single Northern Primordial Tradition adapted to every different historical condition. North is  Cardinal Point  chosen by the primeval Logos in order to reveal itself in History, and each of its further manifestations only restored that primeval polar-paradise symbolism.

Sacred geography correlates North to spirit, light, purity, completeness, unity, eternity.

The south symbolizes something directly opposite — materiality, darkness, mixture, privation, plurality, immersion in the stream of time and becoming. Even from the natural point of view, in polar areas there is one long semi-annual Day and one long semi-annual Night. It is the Day and Night of the gods and heroes, of the angels. Even decayed traditions remembered this sacral, spiritual, supernatural Cardinal North, including the northern regions as the dwelling place of “spirits” and “forces from beyond”. In the south the Day and Night of the gods are fragmented into a set of human days, the original symbolism of Hyperborea is lost, and its memories become a piece of “culture”, of “legend”. South generally often corresponds to culture, i.e. to that sphere of human activity where the Invisible and the Purely Spiritual acquires material, hardened, visible outlines. South is the reign of substance, life, biology and instincts. The South corrupts the northern purity of Tradition, but preserves its traces in materialized features.

The North – South pair in sacred geography is not reduced to an abstract opposition of Good and Evil. It is rather the opposition of Spiritual Idea to its coarsened, material embodying. In normal cases, as the primacy of Northis recognized by the South, between these parties of a light there exist an harmonious relation — the North “spiritualizes” the South, the nordic messengers give the southerners Tradition, lays the foundations of sacred civilizations. If the South fails to recognize the primacy of North, the sacred opposition, the “war of continents” begins, and from the point of view of tradition the South is responsible for this conflict by breaking the sacred rules. In the Rama-Yana, for instance, the southern island Lanka is considered as a home of the demons which have stolen the wife of Rama, Sita, and declared war to the continental North with capital Ayodjya.

Thus it is important to mark that in sacred geography the North – South axis is more relevant than the East – West axis. But being the more relevant one, it corresponds to the most ancient stages of cyclical history. The great war of North and South, Hyperborea and Gondvana (ancient paleo-continent of the South) refers to “antidiluvian” times. In the last phases of the cycle it becomes more hidden, veiled. The paleo-continents of North and South themselves disappear. The testimonial sign of opposition is passed to East and West.

The shift from the vertical North – South axis to the horizontal East – East axis, typical of the last stages of the cycle, nevertheless saves the logic and symbolical connection between these two sacred-geographical pairs. The North – South pair (i.e. Spirit – Matter, Eternity – Time) is projected on the East – West pair (i.e. Tradition and Profanity, Origin and Decay). East is the horizontal downward projection of North. West — the horizontal upward projection of the South. From such transference of sacred meanings one can easily obtain the structure of the continental vision peculiar to Tradition.

The people of the North

Sacred North defines a special human type, which can have a biological, racial embodying, but can also not have it. The substance of “nordism” is consist in the capability of man to raise each object of the physical, material world to its archetype, to its Idea. This quality is not a simple development of rational origin. Vice-versa, carthesian and kantian “pure intellect” for its nature is not able to overcome the thin border between “phenomenon” and “noumenon”-  but just this ability lies at the bases of “nordic” thinking. The man of North is not simply white, “arian” or indoeuropean for his blood, language and culture. The man of North is a particular kind of being possessing a straight intuition of the Sacred. To him the cosmos is a texture of symbols, each of them called out of secret by the eye of the Spiritual First Principle. The man of North is the “solar man”, Sonnenmensch, not absorbing energy, as black holes do, but outlining it, pouring out light, force and wisdom from its spiritual flow of creation.

The pure nordic civilization disappeared with the ancient Hyperboreans, but its messengers have laid the bases of all present traditions. This nordic “race” of Teachers stood at the origins of religion and culture of the peoples of all continents and colours of skin. Traces of an hyperborean cult can be found among the Indians of Northern America and among the ancient Slaves, among the founders of the Chinese civilization and among the natives of the Pacific, among the blond Germans and among the black shamans of Western Africa, among the red-skinned Aztecs and among the Mongols with wide cheek-bones. There is no such people on the planet, which would not have a myth about the “solar man, Sonnenmensch. True spirituality, supra-rational Mind, divine Logos, capacity to see through the world its secret Soul — these are the defining qualities of the North. Wherever there is Sacred Purity and Wisdom, there invisibly is the North – whatever the point in time or space we are in.

The people of the South

The man of the South, the gondvanic type, is directly opposed to the  “nordic” type. The man of the South lives in a circle of effects, of secondary manifestations; he dwells in the cosmos, which he venerates but does not understand. He worships exteriority, but not interiority. He carefully saves tracks of spirituality, its embodying in the material environment, but is not able to proceed from symbolizing to symbolized. The man of the South lives by passions and rushes, he puts the psychic above the spiritual (which he simply does not know) and worships Life as a higher authority. The cult of the Great Mother, of the matter generating the variety of forms, is typical of the man of the South. The civilization of the South is a civilization of the Moon receiving the light from the Sun (North), preserving and diffusing it for some time, but periodically losing contact with it (new moon). The man of the South is a Mondmensch.

When the people of the South stay in harmony with the people of North, i.e. recognize their authority and their typological (not racial!) superiority, harmony reigns among civilizations. When they claim their supremacy because of their archetypical relation to reality, there arises a distorted cultural type, which can be globally defined by  adoration of idols, fetishism or paganism (in the negative, pejorative sense of this term).

As in the case of  paleocontinents, pure northern and southern types existed only in remote ancient times. The people of North and people of the South opposed one another at the origins. Later all peoples of North penetrated into southern lands, founding sometimes bright expressions of the “nordic” civilization — ancient Iran, India. On the other hand, those of the South sometimes went far northward, bearing their cultural type —Finns, Eskimos, Chuckchi etc. Gradually the original clearness of the sacred-geographical panorama became muddy. But in spite of everything the typological dualism of the “people of North” and the “people of the South” was preserved in all times and epochs – but not as much as an external conflict of two miscellaneous civilizations, as an internal conflict within the framework of the same civilization. The type of North and the type of the South, since some moment in sacred history, oppose each other everywhere, irrespective of the concrete place of the planet.

North and South in East and in West

The type of the people of North could be projected in the South, East and West. In the South, the Light of North generated great metaphysical civilizations such as the Indian, Iranian or Chinese, which in the situation of the “conservative” South for a long time saved the Revelation, entrusted by it. However, the simpleness and clearness of northern symbolism turned here into a complex and miscellaneous tangle of sacred doctrines, sacraments and rites. However, the further to the South, the feebler are the traces of the North. And among the inhabitants of the Pacific islands and Southern Africa, “nordic” motives in mythology and sacraments are saved in an extremely fragmentary, rudimentary and even distorted form.

In the East, North is shown as the classic traditional society founded on the univocal superiority of the supra-individual above the individual, where the “human” and the “rational” are erased before the supra-human and supra-rational Principle. If the South gives the civilization a character of “stability”, the East defines its sacrality and authenticity, the major guarantor of which is the Light of the North.

In the West, North was shown in the heroic societies, where such tendency, peculiar to the West, to fragmentation, individualisation and razionalisazion surpassed itself, and the individual, becoming the Hero, grew out of the narrow framework of the “human – too-human” personality. North in West is personified by the symbolical figure of Heracles who, on the one hand, releases Prometheus (the pure western, titanic, “humanist” tendency), and on the other, helps Zeus and the gods to defeat the rebellion of the giants (i.e. serves for the sake of sacred rules and spiritual Order).

The South, on the contrary, projects itself on all three orientations according to an opposite image. In the North, it gives the effect of “archaism” and cultural stagnation. Even the most northern, “nordic” traditions under the southern influence, “paleo-asiatic”, “Finnish” or “Eskimo” elements acquire the characters of“idol-worshipping” and “fetishism”. (This is characteristic, in particular, of the German-Scandinavian civilization in the “epoch of the Skalds”.)

In the East, the forces of the South are shown in despotic societies, where normal and fair eastern indifference to the individual turns into the denial of the great Supra-human Subject. All forms of Eastern totalitarianism, both typological and racial, are linked to the South.

And at last, in the West the South is shown in the extremely rough, materialistic forms of individualism, when the atomic individuals reach the limit of antiheroic degeneration, worshipping only “the golden veal” of comfort and egoistical hedonism. That exactly such combination of the two sacred-geopolitical tendencies gives the most negative type of civilization is obvious, since in it two attitudes, already in themselves negative — the South on the vertical line and the West on the horizontal line – are laid one upon the other.

From continents to meta-continents

If from the perspective of sacred geography the symbolical North univocally corresponds to positive aspects, and the South to negative, in an exclusively modern geopolitical picture of the world everything is much more complex, and to some extent even turned upside down. Modern geopolitics understands the terms “North” and “South” as wholly different categories than sacred geography does.

Firstly, the paleocontinent of North, Hyperborea, since many millennia already does not exist on a physical level, remaining a spiritual reality, on which is directed the spiritual look of the intiated, exacting the original Tradition.

Secondly, the ancient nordic race, the race of the “white teachers”, coupled with the pole in the primordial epoch, does not coincide at all with what is commonly agreed to call today the coupled with white race”, based only on physical characters, on the colour of the skin etc. Northern Tradition and its original population, “nordic autochtones” since a long time do not represent any more a concrete historical-geographical reality. By common judgement, even the last remains of this primordial culture have disappeared from physical reality already some millennia ago.

Thus, North in Tradition is a meta-historical and meta-geographical reality. The same can be said also about the “hyperborean race ” — a “race” not in the biological, but in pure spiritual, metaphysical sense. (This theme of “metaphysical races” was in detail developed in the works of Julius Evola).

The continent of the South and the whole South of Tradition, too, since a long time ago do not exist any more in the pure state, no lesser than its most ancient population. Somehow, the “South” from some moment onwards became practically the whole planet, as the influence of the original polar initiatic centre and its messengers on the world diminished. The modern races of the South represent a product of multiple mixtures with the races of North, and the color of the skin for a long time already ceased to be the distinctive sign of belonging to such or such “metaphysical race”.

In other words, the modern geopolitical picture of the world has very little in commun with the principial vision of the world in its supra-historical, meta-temporal cut. The continents and their populations in our epoch have gone extremely far from those archetypes, which corresponded to them in primordial times. Therefore between real continents and real races (the realities of modern geopolitics), on the one hand, and  meta-continents and meta-races (the realities of traditional sacred geography), on the other hand, today there exist not just a simple discrepancy, but almost an inverse correspondence.

The illusion of the “rich North”

Modern geopolitics uses the concept of “north” most frequently with the definition “rich” — “the rich North ”, and also “the advanced North ”. This connotates the whole aggregate of the western civilization, giving its basic attention to the development of the material and economic side of life. “Rich North ” is rich not for being cleverer, or more intellectual, or more spiritual than the “South” but because it builds its social system on the principle of maximizing the material which can be taken from the social and natural potential, from the exploitation of human and natural resources. The racial image of “Rich North ” is linked to those peoples having white skin, and this feature lays at the roots of the various versions, explicit or hidden, of “western racism” (in particular Anglo-Saxon). The success of “rich North” in the material sphere was raised to a political and even “racial” principle in those countries which were the avantgarde of industrial, technical and economic development — i.e. England, Holland, and later Germany and the US. In this case, material and quantitative welfare was equalled to a qualitative criterion, and on this base the most ridiculous prejudices about “barbarism”, “primitiveness”, “underdevelopment” and “untermenschlichkeit” of southern (i.e. not of belonging to “rich North”) peoples were developed. Such “economic racism ” was especially clearly shown in the Anglo-Saxon colonial conquests, and afterwards its embellished version was introduced in the most rough and contradictory aspects of the national-socialist ideology. Thus, often Nazi ideologists simply blended vague guesses about pure “spiritual nordism” and “spiritual arian race” with vulgar, mercantilistic, biological racism of the English kind. (By the way, precisely this substitution of categories of sacred geography with categories of material and technical development was also that most negative side of national-socialism which led it, eventually, to its political, theoretical and even military collapse). But even after the defeat of the Third Reich, this kind of a racism of the “rich North” has not disappeared at all from political life. However its bearers became first of all the US and their atlantic partners in Western Europe. Certainly, in the most recent mondialist doctrines of “rich North” the question of biological and racial purity is not stressed, but nevertheless, in practice, in its relations with the undeveloped and less developed countries of the Third world, the “rich North ” also today shows only “racist” haughtiness, typical both of the English colonialists and of the German national-socialist orthodox followers of Rosenberg.

Actually, “rich North” geopolitically means those countries where forces directly opposite to Tradition have won – forces of quantity, materialism, atheism, spiritual degradation and emotional degeneration. “ Rich North ” means something radically distinct from “spiritual nordism”, from “hyperborean spirit”. The substance of North in sacred geography is the primacy of spirit above substance, the definitive and total victory of Light, Equity and Purity above the darkness of animal life, the arrogance of individual passions and the mud of base egoism. “Rich North” mondialist geopolitics, on the contrary, means exclusively material welfare, hedonism, consumer society, the unproblematic and artificial pseudo-paradise of those whom Nietzsche called “the last men”. Material progress of the technical civilization was accompanied by a monstrous spiritual regress just of sacred culture, and consequently, from the point of view of Tradition, the “wealth” of modern “advanced” North cannot serve as a criterion of genuine superiority above material “poverty” and technical backwardness of modern “primitive South ”.

Moreover, material “poverty” of the South quite often is conversely linked to the conservation in southern regions of the genuinely sacred forms of civilization; this means that behind such “poverty” a spiritual wealth is sometimes disguised. At least two sacred civilizations still exist today in the Southern space, in spite of all attempts from “rich (and aggressive!) North” to impose on everyone its own measure and path of development. These are Hinduist India and the Islamist world. As the Far East tradition is concerned, there are various points of view: some see even under the layer of “Marxist” and “Maoist” rethorics some traditional principles, which were always undiscussed for the Chinese sacred civilization. Anyway, even those southern regions inhabited by peoples saving their devotion to very ancient and almost forgotten sacred traditions, all the same in comparison with atheized and utterly  materialistic “rich North”, exhibit “spiritual”, “rigorous” and “normal” features – whereas the “rich North” itself, from a spiritual point of view, is completely “abnormal” and “pathological”.

Paradox of the “ Third World ”

The “Poor South” in mondialist projects is actually synonym ot “the Third world”. This world was called “Third” during the cold war, and this concept supposed that the other two “worlds” — advanced capitalist and less advanced Soviet — are more relevant and significant for global geopolitics, than all remaining regions. Basically, the expression “Third world ” has a pejorative sense:  according to utilitarian logics of tthe ”rich North”, such definition actually equates countries of the “Third world ” to “nobody’s” bases of natural and human resources, which should only obey, be exploited and be used for its own purposes. Thus “rich North ” skilfully manoeuvered the traditional political-ideological and religious features of the “poor South ”, trying to  asserve to its exclusively materialist and economic concerns those forces and structures, which on spiritual potential much more exceeded the spiritual level of  “North”. This was almost always possible to it, as the same cyclical moment of development of our civilization favours perverted, abnormal and unnatural tendencies – since, according to the Tradition, we are now in the latest period of the “dark century”, Khali-Yuga. Hinduism, Confucianism, Islam, the autochthonous traditions of the “not white” peoples became for the material conquerors of the “rich North” simply a drag on the accomplishment of their purposes, but at the same time they have often used the separate aspects of Tradition for achieving their mercatilistic purposes — exploiting contradictions, religious features or national problems. Such an utilitarian use of the various aspects of Tradition for exclusively antitraditional purposes was an even greater evil, than the straight denial of all Traditional values, since the highest pervertion consists in that the great is asserved to the insignificant.

Actually “ the poor South ” is “poor” at a material level precisely because of its spiritual attitudes, always giving  the material aspects of existence a minor and unimportant place. The geopolitical South in our time saved in general an exclusively  traditionalist attitude towards the objects of the external world — a quiet, detached and, eventually, indifferent attitude — in stark contrast to the material obsession of the “rich North”, to its materialistic and hedonistic paranoia. The people of the “poor South” normally dwell into Tradition, and till now their existences are fuller, deeper and even more magnificent, as the active comparticipation in sacred Tradition bestows on all aspects of their personal lives that sense, that intensity, that saturation of which have been deprived for a long time the representants of the “rich North”, – made hysterical by nevroses, material fears, internal desolation, complete aimlessness of existence, representing just a bright glass kaleidoscope, only an empty picture.

It could be said that the correlation between North and South in original times is polarly opposite to their correlation in our epoch, as it is the South that today still preserves some links with the Tradition, whereas the North has definitively lost them. Nevertheless this statement does not absolutely cover the whole picture of reality, since the true Tradition cannot admit in relation to itself such humiliating reference, as the practices of aggressive-atheistic “ rich North ” with the “Third world”. The fact is that Tradition is preserved in the South only in an inertial, fragmentary, partial way. It holds a passive position and resists, only defending itself. Therefore the spiritual North does not fully transfer itself to the South at the end of  times – in the South there is only an accumulation and preservation of spiritual impulses, never coupled with the sacred North. In line of principle, the active traditional initiative cannot emanate from the South. And on the contrary, the mondialist “rich North” has managed so to harden its pernicious effect on the planet due to the  specificity of northern regions, predisposed to activity. North was and remains the elective place of force, therefore true efficiency belongs to the geopolitical initiatives coming from the North.

The “Poor South” possesses today all spiritual priority before the “rich North”, but it thus cannot serve as a serious alternative to the profane aggression of the “rich North”, nor can offer the radical geopolitical project capable to subvert the pathological picture of modern planetary space.

The role of the “ Second World ”

In the bipolar geopolitical picture “rich North” —  “poor South” there always existed an additional component having self-supporting and very relevant meaning. It is the “second world ”. Under the expression “second world ” it is conventionally understood to mean the socialist camp integrated into the Soviet system. This “second world” was neither the present “rich North”, as definite spiritual motives secretly influenced the nominally materialistic ideology of the Soviet socialism, neither the present “Third world”, since as a whole the attitude to material development, “progress” and other only profane principles laid at the roots of the Soviet system. The geopolitically eurasian USSR is located both on the territories of “poor Asia”, and on the lands of  sufficiently “civilized” Europe. During the socialist period, the planetary belt of the “rich North” was broken in eastern Eurasia, complicating the clearness of geopolitical relations on an the North – South axis.

The end of the “Second world” as a special civilization leaves to the Euroasian space of the former USSR two alternatives — either to be integrated in the “rich North” (that is, the West and the US), or to be thrown down to the “poor South”, i.e. to turn into the  “Third world”. As a compromise variant, the separation of regions (part to the “North”, and part to the “South”), is also possible. As always has been in the last centuries, the initiative of redistributing geopolitical spaces in this process belongs to the “rich North”, which, cynically using the paradoxes of the same concept of “Second world ”, fixes new geopolitical borders and breaks zones of influence. National, economic and religious factors serve the mondialists only as instruments in their cynical and deeply materialistically motivated activity. It is not surprising, that besides false “humanist” rethorics the “racist” reasons invoked to inspire the Russians a complex of “white” superiority in relation to the Asian and Caucasian south will even more often and almost openly be used. To this is correlated the inverse process — the definitive rejection of southern territories of the former “Second world ” to the “poor South ” is accompanied by playing the the card of fundamentalist tendencies, people’s inclination to Tradition, and the revival of religion.

The “Second world”, being disintegrated, is broken along the lines of “traditionalism” (the southern, inertial, conservative kind) and “antitraditionalism” (the actively northern, modernist and materialist kind). Such dualism, which is only planned today, but in the near future will become the dominant phenomenon of the Euroasian geopolitics, is predetermined by the expansion of mondialistic understanding of the world in terms of “rich North” — “poor South”  “. Any attempt to save the former Soviet Great Space, any attempt simply to save the “Second world” as something self-supporting and balancing halfway between North and South (in their exclusive modern meaning), cannot be crowned with success, without putting into doubt the fundamental polar conception of modern geopolitics, understood and realized in its real nature, leaving aside all deceitful declarations of humanitarian and economic mood.

The “Second world” disappears. There is no more place for it on the modern geopolitical map. At the same time, the pressure of the “rich North” on the “poor South” increases, being one with an agressive materialistic technocratic society in the absence of an intermediate power, that existed till yesterday – the “Second world”. Any different destiny for the the “Second world”, than the total partition according to the dictating rules of the “rich North”, is possible only through a radical waiving  of the planetary logics of a dichotomic North – South axis, considered in a mondialist key.

The project of the “Rising North”

The “Rich mondialist North” globalizes its domination over the planet through partition and destruction of the “Second world”. In modern geopolitics this is also called as the “new world order”. The active forces of antitradition consolidate their victory over the passive recalcitrance of southern regions, preserving their economic backwardness and defending Tradition in its residual forms. The internal geopolitical energies of the “Second world ” are put before a choice — either to be incorporated in the system of the “civilized northern belt” and definitively to tear off any connection with a sacred history (project of leftist mondialism), or to turn into an occupied territory being allowed a partial restoration of some aspects of tradition (project of the rightist mondialism). In this direction the events today are developing and will develop in the near future.

As the alternative project it is possible theoretically to formulate a different path of geopolitical transformation based on rejecting the North – South mondialist logics and on returning to the spirit of genuine sacred geography — as far as it possible at the end of dark era. It is the project of the “Great Return” or, in different terminology, of the “Great War of Continents”.

In its most general features, the essence of this project is as follows.

1) The “Rich North is opposed not to the “poor South”, but to the “poor North”. The “Poor North ” is an ideal, the sacred ideal of returning to the nordic sources of civilization. Such North  is “Poor” because it is based on total ascetism, on radical devotion to the highest values of Tradition, on the complete despise of the material for the sake of the spiritual. “Poor North” geographically exists only on the territories of Russia, which, being in effect, “ by the Second world ”, socio-politically resisted until the last moment to the final adoption of a mondialist civilization in its most “progressive” forms. Northern eurasian lands of Russia are the only territories on earth which have been not completely mastered by the “rich North”, inhabited by traditional peoples and being a terra incognita of the modern world. The path of “Poor North ” for Russia means the refusal of incorporating in the mondialist belt, of achaicizing its own traditions and of reducing them to the folkloric level of an ethno-religious reserve. “Poor North” should be spiritual, intellectual, active and aggressive. In other regions of the “rich North” a potential opposition of the “poor North” is also possible too – which can be shown in a radical sabotage on part of the intellectual western élite to the establishied course of the “mercantilistic civilization”, in the rebellion against the world of finance for the ancient and eternal values of Spirit, equity, self-sacrifice. “Poor North” starts a geopolitical and ideological fight with the “rich North”, rejecting its projects, blasting from the inside and from the outside its plans, bating its stainless efficiency, crashing its social and political manipulations.

2) The “Poor South”, unable to counter itself  the “rich North”, engages a radical alliance with the “poor (eurasian) North” and starts a liberation struggle against “northern” dictatorship. It is especially important to strike the representants of the ideology of the “rich South ”, i.e. those forces which, working in the “rich North”, stand up for “development”, “progress” and “modernization” of traditional countries, which practically will mean only an increasing withdrawal from the remains of sacred Tradition.

3) The “Poor North” of the eurasian East, together with the “poor South”, extending on a circle around the whole planet, concentrate the forces struggling against the “rich North” of the atlantist West. Thus an end is forever put to the ideologically vulgar versions of Anglo-Saxon racism, hailing the “technical civilization of the white peoples” and echoing the mondialist propaganda. (Alain de Benoist expressed this idea in the title of his famous book “The Third world and Europe: the same fight” [L’Europe, Tiersmonde — même combat]; its argument is, of course, “spiritual Europe”, the “Europe of the peoples and traditions”, instead of the “Maastricht Europe of goods”.) Intellectuality, activity and the spiritual profile of the genuine sacred North make the traditions of the revert to a nordic Source, and raise the “South” to a planetary revolt against the only geopolitical enemy. The passive recalcitrance of the “South” acquires thus a fulcrum in the planetary messianism of the “nordics”, radically rejecting the degenerated and antisacred branch of those white peoples which followed the path of technical progress and material development. Flares the planetary supra-racial and supra-national Geopolitical Revolution based on the fundamental solidarity of the “Third world” with that part of the “Second world” which rejects the project of the “rich North”.

During the struggle, the flame of the “resurrection of the spiritual North”, the flame of Hyperborea transforms the geopolitical reality. The new global ideology is the ideology of Final Restoration, putting the final dot to the geopolitical history of civilization – but not that dot, which wanted to put thhe mondialist spokesmen of the End of History. The materialistic, atheistic, antisacral, technocratic, atlantist variant of the End is turned into a different epilogue — the final Victory of the sacred Avatar, the coming of the Terrible Destiny, giving those who chose voluntary poverty a reign of spiritual abundance, and to those who preferred wealth founded on assassination of Spirit, eternal damnation and torments in hell.

The missed continents are lifted from the abysses of the past. Invisible meta-continents appear into reality. A New Earth and New Heaven arise.

This path is not from sacred geography to geopolitics, but on the contrary, from geopolitics to sacred geography.

‘Financism’, the Supreme Stage of Development of Capitalism (Aleksandr Dugin)

Friday, July 31st, 1970

”Financism”, the Supreme Stage of Development of Capitalism
Aleksandr Dugin
“Poljarnaja Zvezda”, 06.04.2000, Translation by Martino Conserva

1. In which sistem of coordinates to examine the phenomenon of “financism”
Does financial capitalism represent just a random variant of the common essence of the development of the capitalist system ? Or is it rather the definitive incarnation of its whole logic, its triumph ?

The answer to this question can not be found within the classics of economic theory, their horizon being limited to the industrial phase of development – the general trend and the full economic significance of which they (and above all the Marxists) did investigate completely and correctly. Post-industrial society is still in many ways an obscure reality.
In its analysis there are no adfirmed classics, although many authors have cast a deep-searching look upon this phenomenon. The task of understanding “financism” is ours, whether we like it or not.

Even to move the first steps in the direction of a consistent overview of this theme, we have to consider the whole history of the economic paradigm, and individuate there the place of “financism”- not just from  the point of view of quantitative chronology, but from the point of view of the qualitative relevance of this phenomenon in the general development of economic models.

And yet, even here, at the zero-stage of formulating the problem, we come across an element of uncertainty undermining the frame of the analyisis. Is there really one and one only history of economics? Such a history did exist indeed, but in two (or three?) alternative versions. There is an acknowledged history of economics from the Liberal position (capitalism as the expression of the modern and most progressive paradigm in economics), as well as from the Marxist position (socialism and the overcoming of capitalism as the expression of the modern and most progressive paradigm in economics). And further, there existed one third orientation (i.e. economic “heterodoxy”), which absolutely declined to evaluate the economic paradigm according to this rough formula (progressive – unprogressive), as the classical economists used to do. But this “third way” economic school (a report on which I made in the “Economic-Philosophical Collection”) remained marginal, in spite of the presence of first class economists and philosophers in its ranks.

2. A problematic evalutation of financism in the Marxist perspective
The events of the last decade have shown a clear-cut success of the historical trend of Liberal economics. And precisely in the context of Liberal economical and philosophical thought the first theorizations on post-industrial society were born. Socialist thought remained instead completely within the borders of the industrial paradigm, and the dramatic fall of the Soviet system introduces unmistakeable accents in the story of this scholarly disputation.

The Liberal systema was capable of
– eluding the socialist revolutions;
– dissolving the proletariat:
– preventing it to consolidate itself intoo a revolutionary party acting on a worldwide scale;
– winning the ideological war against the socialist field.

From all these aspects, the Liberal model successfully defeated the Marxist threat.

Apart from the position of tactical advantage, we are confronted here with a most relevant conceptual conclusion. I can understand people sharing a certain set of weltanschauungen will hardly accept this conclusion – and even the thought of such generalization might be disturbing to some. Nevertheless, a large number of factors is driving us to think that the Liberal paradigm – that is, specifically, consistent Capitalism – is just the economic paradigm which incarnates in itself the true spirit of modern world. Liberal-capitalism, more than socialism (and of “third-way” economic models), proved to be the most up-to-date economic regime

Being such the state of things, it would be wrong to decipher a posteriori the Socialist systems as proving less adequate, while sticking to the modern economic paradigm. Everything is much more complex: the anti-capitalist orientation and the philosophical premise, lying just at the roots of the socialist economic model, appear as a species of anti-modern tendencies relative to economy – but not only relative to it. It is not a blind alley, but the last fight (though veiled and externally stylizeded according to the look of “modernism”) of the anti-modern paradigm of a weltanschauung which finds expression in economic theory and praxis (see A.Dugin, “The Paradigm of the End”, Elementy n.9).

Nowadays the socialist position is not worth a dime: not only  Marx’s predictions about the transition of the industrialized West to socialism proved to be true only in the Eastern agrarian-asiatic mode of production; even the last Marxist argument was beaten – the fact of the existence of Marxism (of the winnning, realized Marxism – although in a voluntaryist, blanquist-leninist way) in many areas of the world.

How to conclude – from this starting point – that socialism itself represents a more “progressive” phenomenon? How to signify that the real course of world history (the infamous historical necessity) runs precisely in its direction? It is impossibile. A fact emerges, more and more clear: that socialism has been the outcome of a resolute general effort – not a product of the objective course of histoty, but precisely of the insurgency against this objective course – the effect of an heroic insurrection and of moral deed of heroism, in which the maximum of tension tied up both the revolutionary élite and the national mass.
In this frame, the geographical and cultural peculiarity of the countries where socialism succedeed does not appear anymore as a random element, but as an important though not determinant factor. Geopolitics does correct economic policy (see A.Dugin, “The Paradigm of the End “, cit..).

Socialism won in the countries of the East as an enemy – cultural, historical, ethnical, and religious – of Eastern orientations and priorities. The russian eurasist (and orthodox jew) eschatological messianism of the bolshevik commissars proved to be a much more weighty argument than the sophisticated abstractions of political economy. Marxist universalism did not prove to be comparably valid. And as a conceptual common language, Marxism fell to pieces together with the Russian-Soviet Empire.

Today’s attempts to decrypt the fhenomenon of “financism” in a Marxist orthodox perspective are clearly doomed to failure, since orthodoxy itself was destroyed. Orthodoxy is confronted – first of all – with the most serious challenge of providing a non contradictory Marxist explaination of the paradoxes of the XXth century – and above all of the tragic fate of socialism in its last decade. Only after performing this task, it would be possibile to move further on. But, having performed such a task, would orthodox Marxism be the same as before? This is hard to believe.

In this way, Liberalism has the qualities to analyze “financism” according to its own peculiar perspective. The movement towards a purely financial economy will be in this view the movement towards a more modern and “progressive” stage. Since capitalism itelf is regarded as modern and “progressive”, so much modern and “progressive” will be financism.

3. “Real domination of Capital”
Liberalism assimilated from the socialist (and even Marxist) weltanschauung what from a paradigmatic point of view did not contradict the foundations of capitalist logic, and destroyed all remaining forms – those really alternative – at the end of an ideological, economicall and geopolitical war.

The post-industrial stage of development of capitalism – during which its transition to a purely financial stage of the economy did happen – coincided with the globalization and totalization of the liberal paradigm itself. Financism is a stage module of development of the capitalist paradigm. Besides, it is a module linked to the metamorphosis of this paradigm into something that has no alternative. Financism is a logical limit, towards which the most self-sufficient development of Capital is attracted.

In the unpublished Book VI of “Capital”, Marx offered a description of this stage as the eventual cycle of “real domination of capital”, which would set in the event that the alternative, revolutionary proletarian subject had not won the battle in the previous stage of “formal domination”. This Marxian theme of the non-predetermined nature of the final outcome of the world struggle between Labour and Capital is something that orthodox Marxism always feared just as much as any living being fears fire. (see Jean-Marc Vivenza, “From formal to real domination of Capital”, Elementy n.7).

Hence the suggestion to situate “financism” in the eschatological zone of the economic history of capitalist development. Such an approach will be perfectly correct from the perspective of the main tendency of capitalist development – the progress of alienation. First the alienation of the product of labour from producers, then the alienation of the whole sphere of production into the system of banking credit, finally the translation of the whole economy into the mode of virtual financial speculation.

4. Liberalism as alienation, “progress” as decay
Financism is the crown of capitalist logic and represents in itself the last, highest stage of alienation.

In this process of total alienation, the natural course of historical development is clearly shown from the perspective of traditional society. But a theme constantly emerges in Tradition – that of Heroes, Prophets and Saviours, resisting against historical enthropy, agaist the gravity force of the Existing. (Marx and the Marxian doctrine can quite rightly be counted as analogous to this “pre-eschatological” insurgency). But sooner or later this initiative also falls under the grindstone of fate, and apocalyptical conditions grow worse.

This traditionalist perpective views “progress”, “natural course of history”, “modernism” as fate and evil, as the inertial fall of a weighty mass, as a consequent coolness of Being. History is alienation, according to traditionalists.

The history of civilization is seen as alienation by Rousseau (the “bon sauvage”, wasted by society), Hegel (“alienation of the Absolute Idea”), and Marx (“estrangement from originary communism”).

The happy turn (“right democracy” in Rousseau, “Prussian State ” in Hegel, “World Revolution ” in Marx) happens notwithstanding the inertia of history.
So the “end of the world” (this ontologically positive event, according to Christians) follows the era of the anti-christ. And the coming of the anti-christ is detected as the unmistakeable sign of the approaching Second Coming. But of course, this does not mean that the certain announcement of the Second Coming getting near can reach also the “prince of this world”. There is only one good thing in the climax of alienation – once this lethal process has reached its limits, it shall be eradicated by the punishing right hand of the transcendental principle.

5. Financial economy and the dialectics of evil
Liberalism is the natural trend of development of the “philosophy of economy”, autonomized, separated from all other social structures of value in its qualitatively modern incarnation. Financism represents the peak of development of the modern economy. That is – the invariance of the “status quo”.

One different issue is the way we evaluate “financism”, and, more in general, the “liberal-capitalist” path of economic development. If we see “financism” (“real domination of capital”) in dark colours, then – whether consciously or not – we find ourselves on the opposite side to the spirit of modernity. This cannot be disguised behind the talk about “progress”. The natural course of history (also economic history) does not suit us; we consider historical enthropy as immoral, and we want to set ourselves against it. In this case, we have to turn ourselves – in a voluntaryist, leninist way – not only to the outfit of “non-financist” views about the economy, but also to all economic models which are non-modern, anti-modern, based upon the “heroical” (according to Werner Sombart’s definition) impulse to overcome the evil course of contemporary world.

“Financism” is not a question of mechanical deviation from the economic paradigm of capitalism; it is a normal stage of its development – the stage of its world-wide triumph.

It is stupid and irresponsible to complain about the fact that the mass of financial speculation on the world stock markets by far exceeds the budgets of developed countries, or that fictitious transfers of capital through computer nets undermine the development of material productive sectors, shifting investments to the sphere of a virtual economy. Alienation of finance from the productive sphere, virtualization of the economic substance are the normal final chord of capitalist development.

6. The indemonstrable imperative of revolution
We can fully agree with all extremely catastrophist prognoses being made by impartial analysts about the ethical significance of these trends. As a matter of fact, increasing the virtual economy to the prejudice of the real sectors of production inevitably leads to economic disaster. The informational element in post-modern societies aims to definitively substitute reality, by replacing it with its illusory but still powerful operating system. This will prove lethal, at a certain point.

And yet – according to the traditionalist views of society (and to other non-liberal and illiberal doctrines) – this is the absolute logic of every immanent process, in which a transcendent principle either does not intervene, or can not intervene, if it does not want to. Capital (as the utmost alienation, as a total reduction to the materialist quantitative principle) has been struggling for a very long time to become the one and only subject of human history. And it made it with “financism”. As a representation, he obtained a much easier victory than in its original form. Virtual, fictitious economy puts the principle itself of reality under exploitation – just as it puts under exploitation the reality of economy and its onthology (though this ontology cannot be independent, it necessarily stems from the more general supra-economic metaphisycal and social form).

The antithesis (even theoretical) to “financism” could be manifest in the previous stages of capitalist development.

Economics is but a language, by which any message can be formulated. The liberal model of the economy (“economics”) is the message of triumphing alienation and enthropy, of the atomization of the social, political, cultural and historical whole. Such is the message of “modern spirit”, the message of Enlightment. “Leftists” (radical democrats, Rousseau, socialists, communists) and “rightists” (fundamentalists, traditionalists, integralists) long time ago interpreted the liberal gospel (in philosophers like John Locke, Jeremy Bentham, John Mill, and in economists like Adam Smith and David Ricardo) as the incarnation of evil in this world, as the dissolution of any organic essence. This is the deadly, nihilistic spirity of modernity, based upon the “exile of the Gods” (M. Heidegger), upon the “death and assassination of God” (F. Nietzsche), upon “exploitation” (K. Marx).

“Financism” is nothing absolutely new, it is Liberal-Capitalism in its purest form. It is “modernity” having totally overcome its antithesis.

This is why protesting against “financism” on a national or world scale is impossible without a global revolution of consciousness, without an excellent revisitation of every anti-liberal ideology, without the expression of a new integral Alternative – and what is more, an Alternative not only against the result (“financism” itself), but against its cause  (“capitalism” “liberalism”, ” modern spirit”).

Searching for such Alternative within the limited sphere of economy is unthinkable. Such Alternative will have to transcend the whole set of modern discourses, the whole “language of modernity”. Only after that, when the global philosophical paradigm of Final Revolution will have been forged, that alternative will get an economic form – as the pragmatic way of stating a transcendent imperative, inductively indemonstrable and empirically unevident.

This is the role of the “new prophets”, the “new saviours”, the “new heroes”.

Anti-financism is but the most exterior level of the deepest and most radical struggle against capitalism and liberalism, the necessity of which does not spring out of pragmatic interests, but from the depth of the dignity of the human subject as a species – a subject who, even into the abyss of being forsaken by God, rejects any reconciliation with the blood-stained world, and stands up for a higher ontology, for a new sacrality, for justice and brotherhood, for freedom and equality.

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