Despite it being an apparent American concept, â€œdark organizationsâ€ remains unknown to the broader publics, either because it is politically untenable or because people are confusing it with dark continents/forces. Some research and writings to illuminate this problem has been forthcoming, some of which was authored by Prof Howard F Stein: Nothing Personal, Just Business (2001) and Prof Diane Vaughan: The Dark Side of Organizations (1999).
Vaughan describes â€œthat routine nonconformity, mistake, misconduct and disaster, are systematically produced by the interconnection between environment, organizations, cognition and choiceâ€. To describe it more in detail she states that â€œSocial normalization of deviance means that people within the organization become so much accustomed to a deviant behavior that they donâ€™t consider it as deviant, despite the fact that they far exceed their own rules for the elementary safety.â€
Stein argues on the other hand, that â€œinstitutional change creates feelings of loss and grief that are often denied; leading to an inability to mourn that can destroy trust and produce aggressionâ€. In summary he writes that â€œThroughout the United States and indeed the world, organizations have become places of darkness, where emotional savagery and brutality are now commonplace and where psychological forms of violence â€“ intimidation, degradation, and dehumanization â€“ are the norm.â€
The psychologist sees it from a change management perspective while the sociologist sees it as â€œdeviant managementâ€, which in itself can be viewed as change. It is possible to deduce that both authors are addressing the same issue which is probably why they both refer to â€œdark organizationsâ€, and not dark continents or people.
There is overwhelming evidence of natural pressures on organizations such as economic pressures and competitive requirements. These pressures can be viewed as negative in the sense that it may even lead to bankruptcy, but the dark organization effect is for the most part different. Referencing the author Jim Collins: How the Mighty Fall (2009), he identifies about 26 parameters/conditions that may (in sequential fashion) lead to failed companies. However, these parameters only apply to â€œhealthyâ€ organizations where companies valued at <20% of their original value is classified and presented as having failed. In dark organizations (which Collins do not address), the assumption can be made that those organizational managers would not â€presentâ€ themselves as failed, but would in terms of business performance remain below the 20% value â€“ essentially forever. For example, in the case of South Africa, the possibility exists, should a healthy organization be enabled, that business performance would improve 5 times, i.e. the GDP/capita target could essentially be $40,000 instead of the (about) $8000 today. Internationally, an example of a dark organization was the Oil-for-food Programme managed by the United Nations. After the second Gulf war, President Bush informed the UN that they may close that initiative. Little did he or the UN General Secretary realize how long it would take. In the South Africa Limited of today, the same dark organizational characteristics are slowly emerging. It can be seen in its limitation of â€œinformationâ€ which leads to lack of transparency and which are generally the first thing threatened organizations do to â€œprotectâ€ themselves. This is similar to the formation and effect of the well-known â€œsiloâ€™sâ€ commentators generally use. When information is finally distributed, it is ambiguous, for example: the South African Governmentâ€™s policies on external relations are the opposite of their home affairs policies â€“ take the wealthy Indian Gupta family aircraft landing on a Military Air Force Base (for a wedding), approved by Foreign Relations while negated by Defense security policies. Another example is the housing development policy of â€œspatial densificationâ€ (which opposes â€œurban sprawlâ€) however, resulting in low-cost housing being implemented in the exact urban sprawl fashion. Examples can be monitored all over the place, which can identify specific organizations that suffer this debilitating illness, and which according to Stein can be remedied, but recognition of the fact is the essential first step.